MPEG-4 Part 14

MP4M4A.mp4.m4a.m4vM4BMPEG-4*.mp4.m4a/m4b/m4p/mp4/3g2.m4b
MPEG-4 Part 14 or MP4 is a digital multimedia container format most commonly used to store video and audio, but it can also be used to store other data such as subtitles and still images.wikipedia
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FairPlay

.m4pAAC-DRMan open letter
FairPlay is a digital rights management (DRM) technology developed by Apple Inc. It is built into the MP4 multimedia file format as an encrypted AAC audio layer, and is used by the company to protect copyrighted works sold through iTunes Store, allowing only authorized devices to play the content.

Motion JPEG 2000

MJ2
It in turn is used as the basis for other file formats in the family (for example MP4, 3GP, Motion JPEG 2000).
Motion JPEG 2000 (MJ2 or MJP2) is a file format for motion sequences of JPEG 2000 images and associated audio, based on the MP4/QuickTime format.

MPEG-4

MPEG4MPEG 44
MPEG-4 Part 14 (formally ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003) is a standard specified as a part of MPEG-4.

3GP and 3G2

3GP.3gp3G2
It in turn is used as the basis for other file formats in the family (for example MP4, 3GP, Motion JPEG 2000).
3GP and 3G2 are container formats similar to MPEG-4 Part 14 (MP4), which is also based on MPEG-4 Part 12.

Apple Lossless

ALACApple Lossless Audio Codec.m4a
In response, Apple Inc. started using the .m4a filename extension for MP4 containers with audio data in the lossy Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) or its own Apple Lossless (ALAC) formats.
Apple Lossless data is frequently stored within an MP4 container with the filename extension .m4a.

QuickTime File Format

MOV.movQuickTime
MPEG-4 Part 14 is an instance of the more general ISO/IEC 14496-12:2004 (MPEG-4 Part 12: ISO base media file format) which is directly based upon the QuickTime File Format.
In 2003, the first version of MP4 format was revised and replaced by MPEG-4 Part 14: MP4 file format (ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003).

ITunes Store

iTunesiTunes Music StoreiTunes U
FairPlay is built into the MP4 multimedia file format as an encrypted AAC audio layer, and is used by the company to protect copyrighted works sold through the store, allowing only authorized devices to play the content.

Portable media player

media playerportable media playersdigital audio players
Portable media players are sometimes advertised as "MP4 Players", although some are simply MP3 Players that also play AMV video or some other video format, and do not necessarily play the MPEG-4 Part 14 format.
The name itself is a misnomer, since most MP4 players through 2007 were incompatible with the MPEG-4 Part 14 or the .mp4 container format.

Advanced Audio Coding

AACAAC-LCMPEG-4 AAC
In response, Apple Inc. started using the .m4a filename extension for MP4 containers with audio data in the lossy Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) or its own Apple Lossless (ALAC) formats.
In addition to the MP4, 3GP and other container formats based on ISO base media file format for file storage, AAC audio data was first packaged in a file for the MPEG-2 standard using Audio Data Interchange Format (ADIF), consisting of a single header followed by the raw AAC audio data blocks.

MPEG-4 Part 17

MPEG-4 Timed Text3GPP Timed TextMPEG-4 Part 17 Timed Text
It is mainly aimed for use in the .mp4 container, but can also be used in the .3gp container as 3GPP Timed Text (TTXT), which is technically almost identical with .mp4 but more used in cell phones.

Comparison of video container formats

Comparison of container formatsComparison of (audio/video) container formatscontainer files
In general, Matroska offers the least overhead, followed by MP4, AVI and Ogg.

Podcast

podcastspodcastingpodcaster
Podguides are in the m4a format and can only be listened to through iTunes or an iPod.

Lossy compression

lossylossy data compressioncompressed
In response, Apple Inc. started using the .m4a filename extension for MP4 containers with audio data in the lossy Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) or its own Apple Lossless (ALAC) formats.

Extensible Metadata Platform

XMPXMP metadataAdobe XMP
MP4 files can contain metadata as defined by the format standard, and in addition, can contain Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP) metadata.
XMP can be used in several file formats such as PDF, JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, GIF, PNG, WebP, HTML, TIFF, Adobe Illustrator, PSD, MP3, MP4, Audio Video Interleave, WAV, RF64, Audio Interchange File Format, PostScript, Encapsulated PostScript, and proposed for DjVu.

Video coding format

video coding standardsvideo codingvideo coding standard
Video content encoded using a particular video coding format is normally bundled with an audio stream (encoded using an audio coding format) inside a multimedia container format such as AVI, MP4, FLV, RealMedia, or Matroska.

ISO/IEC base media file format

ISO base media file formatMPEG-4 Part 12ISO BMFF
MPEG-4 Part 14 is an instance of the more general ISO/IEC 14496-12:2004 (MPEG-4 Part 12: ISO base media file format) which is directly based upon the QuickTime File Format.
It is used as the basis for other media file formats (e.g. container formats MP4 and 3GP).

Audio coding format

audio codingaudio coding standardaudio compression format
As such, the user normally doesn't have a raw AAC file, but instead has a .m4a audio file, which is a MPEG-4 Part 14 container containing AAC-encoded audio.

Nero Digital

NeroNero AAC CodecNero Digital Audio

Codec

codecsdecoderdecoders
MPEG transport stream, MPEG program stream, MP4, and ISO base media file format are examples of container formats that are ISO standardized.

MPEG-4 SLS

Scalable Lossless CodingHD-AACMPEG-4 Scalable To Lossless (SLS)

Digital container format

container formatcontainercontainer formats
MPEG-4 Part 14 or MP4 is a digital multimedia container format most commonly used to store video and audio, but it can also be used to store other data such as subtitles and still images.