MS-DOS

DOSPCMicrosoft DOSPC MS-DOSPCs running MS-DOS2.012.112.53.03.20
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.wikipedia
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Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with Windows.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMSMicrosoft Corp.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.

IBM PC compatible

PCIBM PCPCs
MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system.
In a crucial concession, IBM's agreement allowed Microsoft to sell its own version, MS-DOS, for non-IBM computers.

IBM PC DOS

PC DOSPC-DOS2000
IBM licensed and re-released it on August 12, 1981 as PC DOS 1.0 for use in their PCs. Microsoft licensed or released versions of MS-DOS under different names like Lifeboat Associates "Software Bus 86" a.k.a. SB-DOS, COMPAQ-DOS, NCR-DOS or Z-DOS before it eventually enforced the MS-DOS name for all versions but the IBM one, which was originally called "IBM Personal Computer DOS", later shortened to IBM PC DOS.
Before version 6.1, PC DOS was an IBM-branded version of MS-DOS.

Tandy 2000

2000TandyTRS-80 Model 2000
Some machines, like the Tandy 2000, were MS-DOS compatible but not IBM-compatible, so they could run software written exclusively for MS-DOS without dependence on the peripheral hardware of the IBM PC architecture.
The Tandy 2000 is a personal computer introduced by Radio Shack in September 1983 based on the 8 MHz Intel 80186 microprocessor running MS-DOS.

Byte (magazine)

ByteByte'' magazineByte magazine
The company planned, over time, to improve MS-DOS so it would be almost indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would also run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z8000, and the LSI-11; they would be upwardly compatible with Xenix, which Byte in 1983 described as "the multi-user MS-DOS of the future".
Whereas many magazines from the mid-1980s had been dedicated to the MS-DOS (PC) platform or the Mac, mostly from a business or home user's perspective, Byte covered developments in the entire field of "small computers and software", and sometimes other computing fields such as supercomputers and high-reliability computing.

Tim Paterson

MS-DOS was a renamed form of 86-DOS owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson.
86-DOS later formed the basis of MS-DOS, the most widely used personal computer operating system in the 1980s.

PDP-11

DEC PDP-11DEC LSI-11LSI-11
The company planned, over time, to improve MS-DOS so it would be almost indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would also run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z8000, and the LSI-11; they would be upwardly compatible with Xenix, which Byte in 1983 described as "the multi-user MS-DOS of the future".
Design features of PDP-11 operating systems, as well as other operating systems from Digital Equipment, influenced the design of other operating systems such as CP/M and hence also MS-DOS.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
One notable early disk operating system was CP/M, which was supported on many early microcomputers and was closely imitated by Microsoft's MS-DOS, which became widely popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's version of it was called IBM DOS or PC DOS).

Comparison of DOS operating systems

several competing products
During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, and MS-DOS went through eight versions, until development ceased in 2000.

Digital Research

Digital Research, Inc.Digital InitiativesDigital Research Inc.
Development of 86-DOS took only six weeks, as it was basically a clone of Digital Research's CP/M (for 8080/Z80 processors), ported to run on 8086 processors and with two notable differences compared to CP/M; an improved disk sector buffering logic and the introduction of FAT12 instead of the CP/M filesystem.
The first 16-bit system was CP/M-86 (1981, adapted to the IBM PC in early 1982), which was meant as direct competitor to MS-DOS.

86-DOS

QDOS86-DOS 0.4286-DOS 1.00
MS-DOS was a renamed form of 86-DOS owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson.
The system was licensed and then purchased by Microsoft and developed further as MS-DOS and PC DOS.

Influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market

before the PC-compatible market startedclosely emulated IBM hardwareclosely emulated IBM's hardware
Very soon an IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, and before long all 8086-family computers closely emulated IBM's hardware, and only a single version of MS-DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for the market.
The ones that used Intel x86 processors often used the generic, non-IBM-compatible specific version of MS-DOS or CP/M-86, just as 8-bit systems with an Intel 8080 compatible CPU normally used CP/M.

Installable File System

IFSIFSHLPIFSMgr
Version 3.1 (OEM) – Support for Microsoft Networks through an IFS layer, remote file and printer API
The Installable File System (IFS) is a filesystem API in MS-DOS/PC DOS 4.x, IBM OS/2 and Microsoft Windows that enables the operating system to recognize and load drivers for file systems.

HP 95LX

95LX
Version 3.22 (OEM) – (HP 95LX)
The HP 95LX Palmtop PC (F1000A, F1010A), also known as project Jaguar, was Hewlett Packard's first MS-DOS-based pocket computer or personal digital assistant, introduced in April 1991 in collaboration with Lotus Development Corporation.

Z-DOS

Microsoft licensed or released versions of MS-DOS under different names like Lifeboat Associates "Software Bus 86" a.k.a. SB-DOS, COMPAQ-DOS, NCR-DOS or Z-DOS before it eventually enforced the MS-DOS name for all versions but the IBM one, which was originally called "IBM Personal Computer DOS", later shortened to IBM PC DOS.
Z-DOS is a discontinued OEM version of Microsoft's MS-DOS specifically adapted to run on the hardware of the Zenith Z-100 personal computer.

MS-DOS 4.0 (multitasking)

MS-DOS 4.0MS-DOSmultitasking MS-DOS
MS-DOS 4.0 (multitasking) and MS-DOS 4.1 A separate branch of development with additional multitasking features, released between 3.2 and 3.3, and later abandoned. It is unrelated to any later versions, including versions 4.00 and 4.01 listed below
MS-DOS 4.0 was a multitasking release of MS-DOS developed by Microsoft based on MS-DOS 2.0.

MS-DOS Editor

EDITedit.comEdit.exe
Version 5.0 (Retail) – includes a full-screen text editor. A number of bugs required re issue. First version to support 3.5-inch, 2.88 MB floppy drives and diskettes. The SHARE command was not needed anymore for old DOS 1.x style FCB file API to partitions over 32 MB. First version to get the HIMEM.SYS driver and load portions of the operating system into the upper memory area and high memory area. Support up to four MS-DOS primary partitions although fdisk cannot create more than one.
MS-DOS Editor, commonly just called edit, is a character-based text editor that comes with MS-DOS (since version 5) and 32-bit versions of Microsoft Windows.

Code page

codepagecode pagesOEM character set
AST Premium Exec DOS 5.0 (OEM) a version for the AST Premium Exec series of notebooks with various extensions, including improved load-high and extended codepage support
With the release of PC DOS version 3.3 (and the near identical MS-DOS 3.3) IBM introduced the code page numbering system to regular PC users, as the code page numbers (and the phrase "code page") were used in new commands to allow the character encoding used by all parts of the OS to be set in a systematic way.

Xenix

SCO XenixMS-XenixTrusted Xenix
Microsoft omitted multi-user support from MS-DOS because Microsoft's Unix-based operating system, Xenix, was fully multi-user.
Microsoft referred to its own MS-DOS as its "single-user, single-tasking operating system", and advised customers that wanted multiuser or multitasking support to buy Xenix.

XCOPY

Version 3.2 (OEM) – First version to support 3.5-inch, 720 kB floppy drives and diskettes and XCOPY.
In computing, XCOPY is a command used on IBM PC DOS, MS-DOS, FreeDOS, OS/2, Microsoft Windows, ReactOS, and related operating systems for copying multiple files or entire directory trees from one directory to another and for copying files across a network.

File Control Block

FCBDTAFCBs
Version 5.0 (Retail) – includes a full-screen text editor. A number of bugs required re issue. First version to support 3.5-inch, 2.88 MB floppy drives and diskettes. The SHARE command was not needed anymore for old DOS 1.x style FCB file API to partitions over 32 MB. First version to get the HIMEM.SYS driver and load portions of the operating system into the upper memory area and high memory area. Support up to four MS-DOS primary partitions although fdisk cannot create more than one.
The FCB originates from CP/M and is also present in most variants of DOS, though only as a backwards compatibility measure in MS-DOS versions 2.0 and later.

Windows 9x

9xMicrosoft Windows 9xWindows 95/98
Windows 9x
Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.

Microsoft ScanDisk

ScanDisk
Version 6.2 – Scandisk as replacement for CHKDSK. Fix serious bugs in DBLSPACE.
Microsoft ScanDisk (also called ScanDisk), is a diagnostic utility included in MS-DOS and Windows 9x.

Windows 95

95Microsoft Windows 95Windows
Windows 95's first retail release included support for VFAT long file names when run in a Windows Virtual-8086 box and 32-bits signed integer errorlevel. New editor. JO.SYS is an alternative filename of the IO.SYS kernel file and used as such for "special purposes". JO.SYS allows booting from either CD-ROM drive or hard disk. Last version to recognize only the first 8.4 GB of a hard disk. The VER internal command reports the Windows version 4.00.950, applications through the MS-DOS API would be reported a version number of 7.00.
Windows 95 merged Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products, and featured significant improvements over its predecessor, most notably in the graphical user interface (GUI) and in its simplified "plug-and-play" features.