MS-DOS

DOSMS-DOS 5.0MS-DOS 6.0MS-DOS 6.22Microsoft DOSMS-DOS 2.0MS-DOS 2.11MS-DOS 4.01MS-DOS 1.25MS-DOS 3.3
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.wikipedia
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Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with Microsoft Windows.

Comparison of DOS operating systems

List of Microsoft DOS versionsseveral competing products
During its lifetime, several competing products were released for the x86 platform, and MS-DOS went through eight versions, until development ceased in 2000.
This article details versions of MS-DOS, IBM PC DOS, and at least partially compatible disk operating systems.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.

IBM PC compatible

PCPC compatibleIBM PC compatibles
MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s, from which point it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system.
Some of these computers ran MS-DOS but had enough hardware differences that IBM compatible software could not be used; examples include slight differences in the memory map, serial ports or video hardware.

Tandy 2000

2000TandyTRS-80 Model 2000
Some machines, like the Tandy 2000, were MS-DOS compatible but not IBM-compatible, so they could run software written exclusively for MS-DOS without dependence on the peripheral hardware of the IBM PC architecture.
The Tandy 2000 is a personal computer introduced by Radio Shack in September 1983 based on the 8 MHz Intel 80186 microprocessor running MS-DOS.

Tim Paterson

Falcon SystemsFalcon Technology
MS-DOS was a renamed from of 86-DOS – owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson.
86-DOS later formed the basis of MS-DOS, the most widely used personal computer operating system in the 1980s.

PDP-11

LSI-11PDP-11/70DEC PDP-11
The company planned, over time, to improve MS-DOS so it would be almost indistinguishable from single-user Xenix, or XEDOS, which would also run on the Motorola 68000, Zilog Z8000, and the LSI-11; they would be upwardly compatible with Xenix, which Byte in 1983 described as "the multi-user MS-DOS of the future".
Design features of PDP-11 operating systems, as well as other operating systems from Digital Equipment, influenced the design of other operating systems such as CP/M and hence also MS-DOS.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
One notable early disk operating system was CP/M, which was supported on many early microcomputers and was closely imitated by Microsoft's MS-DOS, which became widely popular as the operating system chosen for the IBM PC (IBM's version of it was called IBM DOS or PC DOS).

Digital Research

DRDigital Research, Inc.Digital Initiatives
Development of 86-DOS took only six weeks, as it was basically a clone of Digital Research's CP/M (for 8080/Z80 processors), ported to run on 8086 processors and with two notable differences compared to CP/M; an improved disk sector buffering logic, and the introduction of FAT12 instead of the CP/M filesystem.
The first 16-bit system was CP/M-86 (1981, adapted to the IBM PC in early 1982), which was meant as direct competitor to MS-DOS.

86-DOS

QDOS86-DOS 0.4286-DOS 1.00
MS-DOS was a renamed from of 86-DOS – owned by Seattle Computer Products, written by Tim Paterson.
The system was licensed and then purchased by Microsoft and developed further as MS-DOS and PC DOS.

Influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market

before the PC-compatible market startedclosely emulated IBM hardwareclosely emulated IBM's hardware
Very soon an IBM-compatible architecture became the goal, and before long all 8086-family computers closely emulated IBM's hardware, and only a single version of MS-DOS for a fixed hardware platform was needed for the market.
The ones that used Intel x86 processors often used the generic, non-IBM-compatible specific version of MS-DOS or CP/M-86, just as 8-bit systems with an Intel 8080 compatible CPU normally used CP/M.

Disk operating system

DOSDisk Operation SystemIBM PC (DOS)
Collectively, MS-DOS, its rebranding as IBM PC DOS, and some operating systems attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as "DOS" (which is also the generic acronym for disk operating system).
Most home and personal computers of the late 1970s and 1980s used a disk operating system, most often with "DOS" in the name and simply referred to as "DOS" within their respective communities: CBM DOS for Commodore 8-bit systems, Atari DOS for the Atari 8-bit family, TRS-DOS for the TRS-80, and Apple DOS for the Apple II, and MS-DOS for IBM PC compatibles.

IBMBIO.COM

DOS BIOSDOS-BIOSDRBIOS.SYS
To this end, MS-DOS was designed with a modular structure with internal device drivers (the DOS BIOS), minimally for primary disk drives and the console, integrated with the kernel and loaded by the boot loader, and installable device drivers for other devices loaded and integrated at boot time.
It serves the same purpose as the file IO.SYS in MS-DOS, or DRBIOS.SYS in DR DOS 3.31 to 3.41.

Z-DOS

Microsoft licensed or released versions of MS-DOS under different names like Lifeboat Associates "Software Bus 86" a.k.a. SB-DOS, COMPAQ-DOS, NCR-DOS or Z-DOS before it eventually enforced the MS-DOS name for all versions but the IBM one, which was originally called "IBM Personal Computer DOS", later shortened to IBM PC DOS.
Z-DOS is a discontinued OEM version of Microsoft's MS-DOS specifically adapted to run on the hardware of the Zenith Z-100 personal computer.

PTS-DOS

S/DOSPhysTechSoftFOLDER.SYS
(Competitors released compatible DOS systems such as DR DOS and PTS-DOS that could also run DOS applications.)
The version numbering followed MS-DOS version numbers, as Microsoft released MS-DOS 6.2 in November 1993.

Installable File System

IFSIFSHLP.SYSIFSHLP
The Installable File System (IFS) is a filesystem API in MS-DOS/PC DOS 4.x, IBM OS/2 and Microsoft Windows that enables the operating system to recognize and load drivers for file systems.

HP 95LX

95LXHewlett-Packard 95LXJaguar (Hewlett-Packard)
The HP 95LX Palmtop PC (F1000A, F1010A), also known as project Jaguar, was Hewlett Packard's first MS-DOS-based pocket computer or personal digital assistant, introduced in April 1991 in collaboration with Lotus Development Corporation.

MS-DOS 4.0 (multitasking)

MS-DOS 4.0MS-DOSMS-DOS 4.1 (multitasking)
MS-DOS 4.0 was a multitasking release of MS-DOS developed by Microsoft based on MS-DOS 2.0.

DOS Shell

DOSSHELL
DOS Shell is a file manager, debuted in MS-DOS and IBM PC DOS version 4.0 (June 1988).

MS-DOS Editor

EDITEdit (MS-DOS)edit.com
MS-DOS Editor, commonly just called edit or edit.com, is a character-based text editor that comes with MS-DOS (since version 5) and 32-bit versions of Microsoft Windows.

Xenix

SCO XenixMS-XenixTrusted Xenix
Microsoft omitted multi-user support from MS-DOS because Microsoft's Unix-based operating system, Xenix, was fully multi-user.
Microsoft referred to its own MS-DOS as its "single-user, single-tasking operating system", and advised customers that wanted multiuser or multitasking support to buy XENIX.

Code page

codepagecode pagesOEM character set
With the release of PC DOS version 3.3 (and the near identical MS-DOS 3.3) IBM introduced the code page numbering system to regular PC users, as the code page numbers (and the phrase "code page") were used in new commands to allow the character encoding used by all parts of the OS to be set in a systematic way.

Compaq

Compaq Computer CorporationCompaq ComputersCompaq Computer
Microsoft licensed or released versions of MS-DOS under different names like Lifeboat Associates "Software Bus 86" a.k.a. SB-DOS, COMPAQ-DOS, NCR-DOS or Z-DOS before it eventually enforced the MS-DOS name for all versions but the IBM one, which was originally called "IBM Personal Computer DOS", later shortened to IBM PC DOS.
Furthermore, Microsoft had kept the right to license the operating system to other computer manufacturers.

XCOPY

In computing, is a command used on IBM PC DOS, MS-DOS, IBM OS/2, Microsoft Windows, FreeDOS, ReactOS, and related operating systems for copying multiple files or entire directory trees from one directory to another and for copying files across a network.

FASTOPEN

In computing, is a DOS TSR command, introduced in MS-DOS version 3.3, that provides accelerated access to frequently-used files and directories.