Ma Zhanshan

Ma Chan-shan
Ma Zhanshan (Ma Chan-shan; ; November 30, 1885 – November 29, 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and other parts of China.wikipedia
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Japanese invasion of Manchuria

invasion of Manchuriainvaded Manchuriainvaded
Ma Zhanshan (Ma Chan-shan; ; November 30, 1885 – November 29, 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and other parts of China.
During this fight, the Nenjiang railroad bridge was dynamited by troops loyal to General Ma Zhanshan to prevent its use.

Qiqihar

TsitsiharQiqihar, HeilongjiangQiqihar City
Ma arrived in the capital Qiqihar on October 19 and took office the next day.
General Ma Zhanshan was ordered to act as Governor and Military Commander-in-chief of Heilongjiang Province on October 10, 1931.

Ding Chao

Ting Chao
Ting Chao and other senior commanders followed Ma's example at the industrial city of Harbin in Jilin province and elsewhere, and his successes inspired the local Chinese to aid or enlist in his forces.
Ding Chao's forces commenced mobilization in November 1931 at the request of Ma Zhanshan.

Manchukuo Imperial Army

Manchukuoarmed forcesarmy
Because of his fame and heroics efforts in resisting the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Colonel Kenji Doihara offered Ma Zhanshan a huge sum of $3,000,000 in gold to defect to the new Manchukuo Imperial Army.
One of the more notable resistance leaders was Ma Zhanshan, whose army fought rearguard actions as the Young Marshal's main force retreated south.

Jiangqiao Campaign

defeateddriven from
Each side charged the other with opening fire without provocation, and thus began the Jiangqiao Campaign.
Zhang Xueliang telegraphed the Kuomintang government in Nanjing for instructions, and then appointed General Ma Zhanshan as acting Chairman and Military Commander-in-chief of Heilongjiang Province on October 16, 1931.

Hui people

HuiChinese MuslimHui Muslim
There are also resources which said Ma Zhanshan was a Chinese Muslim and his Muslim name was Muazzam Husain.
Ma Zhanshan was a Hui guerilla fighter against the Japanese.

Wan Fulin

Wan Fu-lin
After the Mukden Incident, when the Japanese Kwantung Army invaded the provinces of Liaoning and Jilin, Governor Wan Fulin of Heilongjiang Province was in Beijing, leaving no one in authority in the province to take charge of defenses against the Japanese.
Zhang Xueliang promoted Ma Zhanshan Governor of Heilongjiang Province in his place.

Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge

Battle of Nenjiang Bridgefirst battlesone of the first battles
Nearby were 2,500 Chinese troops and a Battle of Nenjiang Bridge ensued.
In November 1931, the acting governor of Heilongjiang province General Ma Zhanshan chose to disobey the Kuomintang government's ban on further resistance to the Japanese invasion and attempted to prevent Japanese forces from crossing into Heilongjiang province by defending a strategic railway bridge across the Nen River near Jiangqiao.

Su Bingwen

In September, Ma Zhanshan arrived in Longmen County and established a relationship with the Heilungkiang National Salvation Army of Su Bingwen.
free of both any of the fighting or any bodies of Japanese troops, and doing nothing of importance in support of either Manchukuo or Gen. Ma Zhanshan.

Kenji Doihara

Doihara KenjiKenji Doihara's criminal activitiesDoihara''' Kenji
Because of his fame and heroics efforts in resisting the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, Colonel Kenji Doihara offered Ma Zhanshan a huge sum of $3,000,000 in gold to defect to the new Manchukuo Imperial Army.
In early 1932, Doihara was sent to head the Harbin Special Agency of the Kwantung Army, where he began negotiations with General Ma Zhanshan after he had been driven from Tsitsihar by the Japanese.

Puyi

Xuantong EmperorPu YiEmperor Puyi
He attended the inaugural ceremony of Pu Yi as Emperor of Manchukuo in March the same year, and was appointed as War Minister of Manchukuo and Governor of Heilongjiang Province under the new government.
General Doihara was able in exchange for a multi-million bribe to get one of the more prominent guerrilla leaders, the Hui Muslim general Ma Zhanshan, to accept Japanese rule, and had Puyi appoint him Defense Minister.

Anti-Japanese resistance volunteers in China

Anti-Japanese Volunteer Armiesvolunteer armiesAnti-Japanese Volunteer Army
Ma appointed himself as nominal Commander-in-chief and absorbed the other volunteer armies in the region, commanding a total fighting force of about 300,000 men at its peak strength.
Gen. Ma Zhanshan, nominally in command of them all, had a total fighting force estimated by the Japanese at 300,000 men.

Mukden Incident

Manchurian IncidentSeptember 18 IncidentMukden
After the Mukden Incident, when the Japanese Kwantung Army invaded the provinces of Liaoning and Jilin, Governor Wan Fulin of Heilongjiang Province was in Beijing, leaving no one in authority in the province to take charge of defenses against the Japanese.

Heilungkiang National Salvation Army

In September, Ma Zhanshan arrived in Longmen County and established a relationship with the Heilungkiang National Salvation Army of Su Bingwen.
Calling themselves the Heilungkiang National Salvation Army they moved eastwards aboard trains towards Tsitsihar to join Gen. Ma Zhanshan in re-capturing that provincial capital.

Defense of Harbin

Harbin IncidentBattle of Harbincapture of Harbin
After General Ma Zhanshan had been driven from Tsitsihar by the Japanese in the Jiangqiao Campaign, he retreated northeast with his depleted forces and set up his headquarters at Hailun, from which he attempted to continue to govern Heilongjiang province.

Pacification of Manchukuo

Japanese occupation of Manchuriaanti-bandit operationsbombing in northeastern China
After the Japanese defeated General Ma Zhanshan and occupied Tsitsihar on 19 November 1931, a local Self-Government Association was established in Heilungkiang Province; and General Chang Ching-hui was inaugurated as Governor of the Province on 1 January 1932.

Islamic rebellion in Xinjiang (1937)

Xinjiang War (1937)Islamic rebellionIslamic Rebellion in Xinjiang
Ma Zhanshan was allegedly one of the commanders of the Soviet army during the Xinjiang War (1937), during which he fought against the fellow Muslim General Ma Hushan.
Chinese Muslim Gen. Ma Zhanshan was allegedly one of the commanders of the Soviet army during the invasion.

Statue of Ma Zhanshan

A statue of Ma Zhanshan is installed in Shanghai's New Town Central Park, in China.

Zhang Jinghui

Chang Ching-huiGeneral Zhang Jinghui
Following the expulsion of pro-Kuomintang Gen. Ma Zhanshan from Qiqihar, Zhang proclaimed his territory to be self-governing and was inaugurated as governor on 7 January 1932.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarJapanese invasion of ChinaJapanese invasion
Many Hui fought in the war against the Japanese such as Bai Chongxi, Ma Hongbin, Ma Hongkui, Ma Bufang, Ma Zhanshan, Ma Biao, Ma Zhongying, Ma Buqing and Ma Hushan.

Imperial Japanese Army

Japanese ArmyJapanese Imperial ArmyJapanese
Ma Zhanshan (Ma Chan-shan; ; November 30, 1885 – November 29, 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and other parts of China.

Manchukuo

ManchuriaEmperor of ManchukuoPrime Minister of Manchukuo
Ma Zhanshan (Ma Chan-shan; ; November 30, 1885 – November 29, 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and other parts of China.

Gongzhuling

Gongzhuling City
Ma was born in Gongzhuling, in Jilin province, to a poor shepherding family.

Jilin

Jilin ProvinceKirinKirin Province
Ting Chao and other senior commanders followed Ma's example at the industrial city of Harbin in Jilin province and elsewhere, and his successes inspired the local Chinese to aid or enlist in his forces. After the Mukden Incident, when the Japanese Kwantung Army invaded the provinces of Liaoning and Jilin, Governor Wan Fulin of Heilongjiang Province was in Beijing, leaving no one in authority in the province to take charge of defenses against the Japanese. Ma was born in Gongzhuling, in Jilin province, to a poor shepherding family.

Wu Junsheng

For his exceptional marksmanship and equestrianism, he was promoted to Guard Monitor of the 4th Security Guard Battalion by Wu Junsheng, Commander of Tianhou Road Patrol and Defense Battalion of Mukden, in 1908.