Mabel Gardiner Hubbard

Hubbard c. 1917
Mabel Hubbard Gardiner Bell as a girl, ca. 1860
Mabel Gardiner Hubbard with her husband Alexander Graham Bell and their daughters Elsie (left) and Marian (1885).
The Brodhead-Bell-Morton Mansion, the Bells' home from 1882–1889, in Washington, D.C., as it appeared in 2008.
The Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, 1876, propelled the Bells to international fame.

American businesswoman, and the daughter of Boston lawyer Gardiner Green Hubbard.

- Mabel Gardiner Hubbard
Hubbard c. 1917

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Hubbard in 1875

Gardiner Greene Hubbard

American lawyer, financier, and community leader.

American lawyer, financier, and community leader.

Hubbard in 1875
Hubbard and his wife, Gertrude, in the 1890s
1947 photograph of Bell descendants with statue of Bell

One of his daughters, Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, married Alexander Graham Bell.

A Bell System logo (called the Blue Bell), used from 1889 to 1900. The Bell Telephone Company and its successors created the Bell System and drove its expansion.

Bell Telephone Company

Organized in Boston, Massachusetts, on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who also helped organize a sister company – the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company.

Organized in Boston, Massachusetts, on July 9, 1877, by Alexander Graham Bell's father-in-law Gardiner Greene Hubbard, who also helped organize a sister company – the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company.

A Bell System logo (called the Blue Bell), used from 1889 to 1900. The Bell Telephone Company and its successors created the Bell System and drove its expansion.
The master telephone patent, 174465, granted March 7, 1876
Gardiner Hubbard, first president and a trustee of the Bell Telephone Company, and father-in-law of Alexander Graham Bell
The Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, 1876, brought Bell international attention.
Alexander Graham Bell ceremonially inaugurating the first New York-to-Chicago telephone line in 1892
The Bell Telephone Memorial, commemorating the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell. The monument, paid by public subscription and sculpted by W.S. Allward, was dedicated by the Governor General of Canada, Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire with Dr. Bell in The Telephone City's Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in 1917.

Two days after the company's formation, on July 11, 1877, Bell married Hubbard's daughter Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, and made a wedding gift of 1,487 shares of his allotment to his new wife, keeping only 10 shares for himself.

Bell c. undefined 1917

Alexander Graham Bell

Scottish-born inventor, scientist and engineer who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone.

Scottish-born inventor, scientist and engineer who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone.

Bell c. undefined 1917
Melville House, the Bells' first home in North America, now a National Historic Site of Canada
Bell, top right, providing pedagogical instruction to teachers at the Boston School for Deaf Mutes, 1871. Throughout his life, he referred to himself as "a teacher of the deaf".
Alexander Graham Bell's telephone patent drawing, March 7, 1876
The master telephone patent, 174465, March 7, 1876
An actor playing Bell in a 1926 film holds Bell's first telephone transmitter
Bell at the opening of the long-distance line from New York to Chicago in 1892
Alexander Graham Bell, his wife Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, and their daughters Elsie (left) and Marian ca. 1885
The Brodhead–Bell mansion, the Bell family residence in Washington, D.C., from 1882 to 1889
Alexander Graham Bell in his later years
Photophone receiver, one half of Bell's wireless optical communication system, ca. 1880
Bell's HD-4 on a test run ca. 1919
AEA Silver Dart ca. 1909
Bell statue by A. E. Cleeve Horne in front of the Bell Telephone Building of Brantford, Ontario, The Telephone City. (Brantford Heritage Inventory, City of Brantford)
A quote by Alexander Graham Bell engraved in the stone wall within the Peace Chapel of the International Peace Garden (in Manitoba Canada and North Dakota, USA).
The Bell Museum, Cape Breton, part of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site
A.G. Bell issue of 1940
Bell, an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, receiving an honorary Doctor of Laws degree (LL.D.) at the university in 1906

Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell retained only two students, six-year-old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth, and 15-year-old Mabel Hubbard.

NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island

Cape Breton Island

Island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.

Island on the Atlantic coast of North America and part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada.

NASA landsat photo of Cape Breton Island
Philippe de Pastour de Costebelle, 1st Governor of Île Royale, only known image of a French Governor
Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
Samuel Waller Prentice, 84th Regiment, 4 January 1780, shipwrecked off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia by Robert Pollard (1784)
The former Congregation Sons of Israel synagogue, in Glace Bay. In 1902, the synagogue was Nova Scotia's first purpose-built synagogue. It permanently closed in July 2010. To the left is the also closed Talmud Torah community centre. This was the location of the Hebrew school and functions like Bar Mitzvah and wedding dinners.
Cape Breton Island's most recognizable and commonly used flag
Cape Breton Island's "Eagle" flag (1994)
Cape Breton Island's second cultural flag, the "Tartan" flag (early 1990s)
Cape Breton Island's first cultural flag, the blue-and-yellow flag, dates to the 1940s.
Cabot's Landing, Victoria County, commemorating the "first land seen" by explorer John Cabot in 1497
The shoreline of Bras d'Or Lake at Marble Mountain, Inverness Co.
A bulk carrier in the Strait of Canso docked at the Martin Marietta Materials quarry at Cape Porcupine
Cape Breton Highlands National Park
Smelt Brook on the northern shore
Entering Cape Breton Island from Canso Causeway
Seal Island Bridge in Victoria County, the 3rd-longest in Nova Scotia
Sydney Harbour with Point Edward, Westmount, and downtown Sydney visible

Baddeck would be the site of his experiments with hydrofoil technologies as well as the Aerial Experiment Association, financed by his wife Mabel Gardiner Hubbard.

The second and larger home, Beinn Bhreagh Hall (known locally as "The Point") was built in 1893 on the Beinn Bhreagh Estate of Alexander Graham & Mabel Bell at Baddeck, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.

Beinn Bhreagh

Name of the former estate of Alexander Graham Bell, in Victoria County, Nova Scotia.

Name of the former estate of Alexander Graham Bell, in Victoria County, Nova Scotia.

The second and larger home, Beinn Bhreagh Hall (known locally as "The Point") was built in 1893 on the Beinn Bhreagh Estate of Alexander Graham & Mabel Bell at Baddeck, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.
{{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}}'s little harbor offered the Bells opportunities for recreation, and later a shelter area for experiments in aviation and hydrofoils.
Alexander Graham Bell relaxing on {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} with three of his granddaughters.
Mabel and Alexander Graham Bell were depicted in a postcard walking in front of their home, {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} Hall.
Red Head Point and the peninsula of {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} can be seen across the bay from the town of Baddeck, Nova Scotia in a 1906 postcard.
The town of Baddeck can be seen from one of the lookouts on {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} in a postcard from the 1920s.

Wealthy from his successful invention and marketing of the telephone, inventor Alexander Graham Bell and his wife, Mabel, undertook a cruising vacation in 1885 along the coast of eastern North America with their intended destination being Newfoundland to view a mining operation that Mabel's father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, had invested in.

A historical plaque on the side of the Franklin School in Washington, D.C. which marks one of the points from which the photophone was demonstrated

Photophone

Telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech on a beam of light.

Telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech on a beam of light.

A historical plaque on the side of the Franklin School in Washington, D.C. which marks one of the points from which the photophone was demonstrated
A diagram from one of Bell's 1880 papers
A photophone receiver and headset, one half of Bell and Tainter's optical telecommunication system of 1880
Illustration of a photophone transmitter, showing the path of reflected sunlight, before and after being modulated
Illustration of a photophone receiver, depicting the conversion of modulated light to sound, as well as its electrical power source (P)
Ernst Ruhmer at his "photo-electric" optical telephone system station. (1905)

While honeymooning in Europe with his bride Mabel Hubbard, Bell likely read of the newly discovered property of selenium having a variable resistance when acted upon by light, in a paper by Robert Sabine as published in Nature on 25 April 1878.

Grosvenor, 1927

Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor

The first full-time editor of the National Geographic magazine (1899–1954).

The first full-time editor of the National Geographic magazine (1899–1954).

Grosvenor, 1927
Hovey at work at the National Geographic headquarters in Washington, D.C. (1914)
Grosvenor traveled in California with Stephen Mather and helped write the act that created the National Parks.
Elsie and Gilbert holding their son, Melville, Library of Congress.
Gilbert Grosvenor holds his young son, Melville Bell Grosvenor, 1902. Library of Congress.
Memorial for Gilbert and Elsie Grosvenor in Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington, D.C.

The club grew out of a social organization started at Beinn Bhreagh, by her grandmother and namesource Mabel Bell.

AEA member John Alexander Douglas McCurdy at the controls of an airplane during an aviation 'meet' near Toronto, Ontario, Canada, c. August 1911. The starboard-side of the transverse "shoulder-yoke" hinged structure for aileron control, in the general form of an upper seat support frame, is visible beside the seated pilot.

Aerial Experiment Association

Canadian-American aeronautical research group formed on 30 September 1907, under the leadership of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell.

Canadian-American aeronautical research group formed on 30 September 1907, under the leadership of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell.

AEA member John Alexander Douglas McCurdy at the controls of an airplane during an aviation 'meet' near Toronto, Ontario, Canada, c. August 1911. The starboard-side of the transverse "shoulder-yoke" hinged structure for aileron control, in the general form of an upper seat support frame, is visible beside the seated pilot.
Aerial Experiment Association members Casey Baldwin, Tom Selfridge, Glenn Curtiss, Alexander Graham Bell, John McCurdy and Augustus Post serving as observer from Aero Club of America.

One day, as the three sat with Dr. Bell discussing the problems of aviation, Mabel Bell, Alexander's wife, suggested they create a formal research group to exploit their collective ideas.

Coda communicating with parents using video technology

Child of deaf adult

Person who was raised by one or more deaf parents or guardians.

Person who was raised by one or more deaf parents or guardians.

Coda communicating with parents using video technology

Alexander Graham Bell, whose mother, Eliza Grace Symonds Bell, was hard of hearing, and whose wife, Mabel Hubbard, became deaf at age 5

"Casey" Baldwin at Ridley College, circa 1900

Frederick Walker Baldwin

Hydrofoil and aviation pioneer and partner of the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell.

Hydrofoil and aviation pioneer and partner of the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell.

"Casey" Baldwin at Ridley College, circa 1900
Aerial Experiment Association. Casey (second from right), Bell (centre), McCurdy, Curtis, and Selfridge

On October 1, 1907, with the encouragement and generous financial support of Bell's wife Mabel Hubbard Bell, Bell, Baldwin, McCurdy, and two Americans, Glenn Curtiss and Thomas Selfridge, formed the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) with the expressed purpose to "get in the air".