MacOS

Mac OS XMacOS XMac OSMacintoshMac OS X (now named macOS)Apple Mac OS XOSXApple OS XOS X (now named macOS)
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X, Roman numeral "X" pronounced "ten") is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.wikipedia
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Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Computer, Inc.
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X, Roman numeral "X" pronounced "ten") is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, and Xcode.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X, Roman numeral "X" pronounced "ten") is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%).

Usage share of operating systems

over 90% market sharearound 90% market sharedesktop operating system market
Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.
In the personal computing platform area of smartphones and watches two systems dominate: Google's Android with over 2.7 billion users and Apple's iOS and macOS combined with over 1.3 billion users.

OS X Mountain Lion

10.8Mountain LionOS X 10.8
After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion.
OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth major release of OS X (now named macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

OS X Mavericks

10.9MavericksOS X 10.9
Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California.
OS X Mavericks (version 10.9) is the tenth major release of OS X (since June 2016 rebranded as macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

Macintosh operating systems

MacMacintoshMac OS
macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems.
The current Mac operating system is macOS, originally named "Mac OS X" until 2012 and then "OS X" until 2016.

MacOS Mojave

macOS 10.1410.14macOS 10.14 "Mojave
The latest version is macOS Mojave, which was publicly released in September 2018.
macOS Mojave (version 10.14) is the fifteenth major release of macOS, Apple Inc.'s desktop operating system for Macintosh computers.

Macintosh

MacApple MacintoshMacs
It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers.
In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system which was later rebranded to simply OS X in 2012, and then macOS in 2016.

App Store (macOS)

Mac App StoreApp StoreMac AppStore
After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.
The App Store is a digital distribution platform for macOS apps, created by Apple Inc. This platform was announced on October 20, 2010, at Apple's "Back to the Mac" event.

TvOS

tvOS 11tvOS 10tvOS 9
Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
tvOS 9.1 was released on December 8, 2015 along with OS X 10.11.2, iOS 9.2, and watchOS 2.1.

Mac OS 9

Mac OS 9.19Mac OS 9.2.2
The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999.
Apple discontinued development of Mac OS 9 in 2001, transitioning all future development to Mac OS X.

Classic Mac OS

Mac OSMacintoshMac
The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were eventually abandoned.
After two aborted attempts at creating a successor to Macintosh System Software called Taligent and Copland, and a four-year development effort spearheaded by Steve Jobs' return to Apple in 1997, Apple replaced Mac OS with a new operating system in 2001 named Mac OS X.

Darwin (operating system)

DarwinDarwin operating systemApple Darwin
macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
Darwin forms the core set of components upon which macOS (previously OS X and Mac OS X), iOS, watchOS, tvOS, and audioOS are based.

Rosetta (software)

RosettaRosetta emulation software
After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, a separate version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was made and distributed exclusively with early Intel-based Macs; it included an emulator known as Rosetta, which allowed users to run most PowerPC applications on Intel-based Macs.
Rosetta is a discontinued dynamic binary translator for Mac OS X that allowed many PowerPC applications to run on certain Intel-based Macintosh computers without modification.

NeXT

NeXT ComputerNeXT Software NeXT inc
macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company.
The founder promised to merge software from NeXT with Apple's hardware platforms, eventually resulting in macOS, iOS, watchOS and tvOS.

Steve Jobs

JobsdeathSteven Jobs
macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company.
In 2001, the original Mac OS was replaced with a completely new Mac OS X, based on NeXT's NeXTSTEP platform, giving the OS a modern Unix-based foundation for the first time.

Mach (kernel)

MachMach kernelMach microkernel
The kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, which was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD.
Mach's derivatives are the basis of the modern operating system kernels in GNU Hurd and Apple's operating systems macOS, iOS, tvOS, and watchOS.

Aqua (user interface)

AquaAqua user interfaceAqua interface
Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance.
Aqua is the graphical user interface (GUI) and visual theme of Apple's macOS operating system.

Mac OS X Tiger

Mac OS X 10.410.4Tiger
After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, a separate version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was made and distributed exclusively with early Intel-based Macs; it included an emulator known as Rosetta, which allowed users to run most PowerPC applications on Intel-based Macs. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV.
Mac OS X Tiger (version 10.4) is the fifth major release of Mac OS X (now named macOS), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Mac computers.

Rhapsody (operating system)

RhapsodyApple RhapsodyRhapsody OS
The project was first code named "Rhapsody" and then officially named Mac OS X.
Rhapsody was the code name given to Apple Computer's next-generation operating system during the period of its development between Apple's purchase of NeXT in late 1996 and the announcement of Mac OS X (now called "macOS") in 1998.

Copland (operating system)

CoplandGershwin Copland
Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were eventually abandoned.
Instead, Apple released a much more legacy-oriented Mac OS 8 in 1997, followed by Mac OS 9's architectural improvements in 1999, and then Mac OS X became Apple's next-generation operating system release in 2001.

NeXTSTEP

NeXTNeXT DPSNeXTStep 1.0
There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989.
After the purchase of NeXT by Apple, it became the source of the popular operating systems macOS, iOS, watchOS, tvOS, and audioOS.

Mac OS 8

Mac OS 8.1Mac OS 8.5Mac OS 8.6
The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5.
Mac OS 8 helped modernize the Mac OS while Apple developed its next generation operating system, Mac OS X.

Apple TV

AppleApple TV (4th generation)Apple TV (Second Generation)
A heavily modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV.
It plays content from any macOS or Windows computer running iTunes.

GarageBand

Garage BandApple GarageBand
Considering music to be a key market, Apple developed the iPod music player and music software for the Mac, including iTunes and GarageBand.
GarageBand is a line of digital audio workstations for macOS and iOS that allows users to create music or podcasts.