MacOS

Mac OS XOS XMacMac OSOSXMacintoshApple OS XApple Mac OS XMac OS X (now named macOS)Mac OSX
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a series of non-free graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.wikipedia
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Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Inc
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a series of non-free graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
Apple's software includes the macOS, iOS, iPadOS, watchOS, and tvOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the Shazam acoustic fingerprint utility, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, and Xcode.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
macOS (previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a series of non-free graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%).

OS X Mountain Lion

OS X 10.810.8OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion
After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion.
OS X Mountain Lion (version 10.8) is the ninth major release of OS X (previously Mac OS X from 2001 to 2012, renamed to macOS in 2016), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

OS X Mavericks

OS X 10.910.9Mavericks
Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California.
OS X Mavericks (version 10.9) is the tenth major release of OS X (since June 2016 rebranded as macOS), Apple Inc.'s desktop and server operating system for Macintosh computers.

Usage share of operating systems

over 90% market sharearound 85% market sharedesktop operating system market
Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.
In the area of desktop and laptop computers, Microsoft Windows is generally above 70% in most markets and at 77% globally, Apple's macOS at around 13%, Google's ChromeOS at about 6% (in the US) and Linux at around 2%.

Macintosh operating systems

Mac OSMacMacintosh
macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems.
The current Mac operating system is macOS, originally named "Mac OS X" until 2012 and then "OS X" until 2016.

MacOS Catalina

macOS 10.15 CatalinaCatalinamacOS 10.15
The latest version is macOS Catalina, which was publicly released in October 2019.
macOS Catalina (version 10.15) is the sixteenth and current major release of macOS, Apple's desktop operating system for Macintosh computers.

TvOS

tvOS 11Apple TV Software 4Apple TV Software 5
Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS.
tvOS 9.1 was released on December 8, 2015 along with OS X 10.11.2, iOS 9.2, and watchOS 2.1.

Macintosh

Apple MacintoshMacMacs
It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers.
In 2001, Apple released Mac OS X, a modern Unix-based operating system which was later rebranded to simply OS X in 2012, and then macOS in 2016.

App Store (macOS)

Mac App StoreApp StoremacOS App Store
After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.
The App Store (also known as the Mac App Store) is a digital distribution platform for macOS apps, created and maintained by Apple Inc. The platform was announced on October 20, 2010, at Apple's "Back to the Mac" event.

Mac OS 9

Mac OS 9.19Mac OS 9.2.2
The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999.
Apple discontinued development of Mac OS 9 in 2001, transitioning all future development to Mac OS X.

Mac OS X Tiger

Mac OS X v10.4Mac OS X 10.4Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger
Version 10.4, Tiger, reportedly shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file searching and improved graphics processing, that Microsoft had spent several years struggling to add to Windows with acceptable performance.
Mac OS X Tiger (version 10.4) is the fifth major release of Mac OS X (renamed to OS X in 2012 and to macOS in 2016), Apple's desktop and server operating system for Mac computers.

Classic Mac OS

Mac OSMacintoshMac OS Classic
The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999.
After two aborted attempts at creating a successor to the Macintosh System Software called Taligent and Copland, and a four-year development effort spearheaded by Steve Jobs' return to Apple in 1997, Apple replaced Mac OS with a new operating system in 2001 named Mac OS X.

Darwin (operating system)

DarwinDarwin operating systemOpenDarwin
Apple has released this family of software as a free and open source operating system named Darwin.
Darwin forms the core set of components upon which macOS (previously OS X and Mac OS X), iOS, watchOS, tvOS, and iPadOS are based.

Unix

UNIX operating systemAT&T UnixUnix-like
macOS has a smaller usage share compared to Windows, but it also has traditionally more secure Unix roots.
As of 2014, the Unix version with the largest installed base is Apple's macOS.

NeXT

NeXT ComputerNeXT Inc.NeXT Software
The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985.
The founder promised to merge software from NeXT with Apple's hardware platforms, eventually resulting in macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS.

Steve Jobs

JobsSteven Jobsdied
The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985.
In 2001, the original Mac OS was replaced with a completely new Mac OS X, based on NeXT's NeXTSTEP platform, giving the OS a modern Unix-based foundation for the first time.

Apple TV

AppleTVApple TV 4KApple TV Software
The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services.
Its Wi-Fi capability is also used to receive content purchased or rented directly from Apple's ITunes Store, transmitted from other nearby IDevice s via AirPlay, or shared from macOS or Windows computers running ITunes.

Mach (kernel)

MachMach kernelMach microkernel
The kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, which was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD.
Mach's derivatives are the basis of the operating system kernel in GNU Hurd and of Apple's XNU kernel used in macOS, iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and watchOS.

Aqua (user interface)

AquaAqua user interfaceAqua interface
Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface, but criticizing it for sluggish performance.
Aqua is the graphical user interface and visual theme of Apple's macOS operating system.

Carbon (API)

CarbonCarbon APICarbonLib
Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; many could also be run directly through the Classic Environment with a reduction in performance.
Carbon is one of Apple’s C-based application programming interfaces (APIs) for macOS (formerly Mac OS X), the operating system that powers Macintosh computers.

Rhapsody (operating system)

RhapsodyApple RhapsodyRhapsody OS
The project was first code named "Rhapsody" and then officially named Mac OS X.
Rhapsody was the code name given to Apple Computer's next-generation operating system during the period of its development between Apple's purchase of NeXT in late 1996 and the announcement of Mac OS X (now called "macOS") in 1998.

GarageBand

Apple GarageBandGarage BandGarageBand®
Considering music to be a key market, Apple developed the iPod music player and music software for the Mac, including iTunes and GarageBand.
GarageBand is a line of digital audio workstations for macOS and iOS devices that allows users to create music or podcasts.

Mac OS 8

Mac OS 8.1Mac OS 8.5Mac OS 8.6
The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5.
Mac OS 8 helped modernize the Mac OS while Apple developed its next-generation operating system, Mac OS X (renamed in 2016 to macOS).

NeXTSTEP

NeXTNeXT DPSNeXTStep 1.0
There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989.
After the purchase of NeXT by Apple, it became the source of the popular operating systems macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS.