Machiavellianism

MachiavellianMachiavellian philosophyneo-Machiavelliananti-Machiavellianismhow to play them to suit his needsMachevillianMachiavelMachiavellian EgocentricityMachiavellian rulerMachiavellian-style
Machiavellianism is defined as the political theory of Niccolò Machiavelli, especially the view that any means can be used if it is necessary to maintain political power.wikipedia
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Niccolò Machiavelli

MachiavelliMachiavellianThe First Decade
The word comes from the Italian Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli, born in 1469, who wrote Il Principe (The Prince), among other works.
Machiavellianism is widely used as a negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described most famously in The Prince. Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and the killing of innocents, as being normal and effective in politics.

The Prince

Il Principeadvised the princeEl Príncipe
The word comes from the Italian Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli, born in 1469, who wrote Il Principe (The Prince), among other works.
Although it is relatively short, the treatise is the most remembered of Machiavelli's works and the one most responsible for bringing the word "Machiavellian" into usage as a pejorative.

Dark triad

dark triadicmore self-admiring, more manipulative, and more psychopathic
In modern psychology, Machiavellianism is also the name of one of the dark triad personalities, characterized by a duplicitous interpersonal style, a cynical disregard for morality, a lack of empathy, and a focus on self-interest and personal gain. Machiavellianism is one of the three personality traits referred to as the dark triad, along with narcissism and psychopathy.
The dark triad in psychology refers to the personality traits of narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy, which are called "dark" because of their malevolent qualities.

St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

massacre of St Bartholomewmassacre of St. BartholomewSaint Bartholomew
It was in this context that the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572 in Paris came to be seen as a product of Machiavellianism, a view greatly influenced by the Huguenot Innocent Gentillet, who published his Discours contre Machievel in 1576, which was printed in ten editions in three languages over the next four years.
It was in this context that the massacre came to be seen as a product of Machiavellianism, a view greatly influenced by the Huguenot Innocent Gentillet, who published his Discours contre Machievel in 1576, which was printed in ten editions in three languages over the next four years.

Narcissism

narcissisticnarcissistnarcissists
Machiavellianism is one of the three personality traits referred to as the dark triad, along with narcissism and psychopathy.
It is one of the three dark triadic personality traits (the others being psychopathy and Machiavellianism).

Self-interest

interestsself interestindividual self-interest
In modern psychology, Machiavellianism is also the name of one of the dark triad personalities, characterized by a duplicitous interpersonal style, a cynical disregard for morality, a lack of empathy, and a focus on self-interest and personal gain.
Machiavellianism

Anti-Machiavel

Antimachiavel
The Anti-Machiavel is an 18th-century essay by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire, rebutting The Prince, and Machiavellianism.
Anti-Machiavel is an 18th-century essay by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire, consisting of a chapter-by-chapter rebuttal of The Prince, the 16th-century book by Niccolò Machiavelli, and Machiavellianism in general.

Psychopathy

psychopathpsychopathicsociopath
Machiavellianism is one of the three personality traits referred to as the dark triad, along with narcissism and psychopathy.
Psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism, three personality traits that are together referred to as the dark triad, share certain characteristics, such as a callous-manipulative interpersonal style.

Agreeableness

agreeableagreeabilityagreeableness/accommodation
Machiavellianism has been found to be negatively correlated with Agreeableness (r = −0.47) and Conscientiousness (r = −0.34), two dimensions of the Big Five personality model (NEO-PI-R).
Although the two concepts are not identical, those who score low on this facet tend to be high in Machiavellianism.

Psychological manipulation

manipulativemanipulationmanipulate
Machiavellianism is also a term that some social, forensic and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to be unemotional, and therefore able to detach themself from conventional morality and hence to deceive and manipulate others.
Other shared traits may include pathological narcissism, consistent irresponsibility, machiavellianism, lack of empathy, cruelty, meanness, impulsivity, proneness to self-harm and addictions, interpersonal exploitation, hostility, anger and rage, vanity, emotional instability, rejection sensitivity, perfectionism, and the use of primitive defence mechanisms that are pathological and narcissistic.

Power (social and political)

powerpolitical powersocial power
More recent research on the motivations of high Machs compared to low Machs found that they gave high priority to money, power, and competition and relatively low priority to community building, self-love, and family commitment.
Machiavellians, however, tend to use nonrational tactics.

Big Five personality traits

Big Fivefive factor modelFive-Factor Model
Machiavellianism has been found to be negatively correlated with Agreeableness (r = −0.47) and Conscientiousness (r = −0.34), two dimensions of the Big Five personality model (NEO-PI-R).
Some psychologists have dissented from the model precisely because they feel it neglects other domains of personality, such as religiosity, manipulativeness/machiavellianism, honesty, sexiness/seductiveness, thriftiness, conservativeness, masculinity/femininity, snobbishness/egotism, sense of humour, and risk-taking/thrill-seeking.

Honesty-humility factor of the HEXACO model of personality

Honesty-Humility
However, Machiavellianism correlates more highly with the Honesty-humility dimension of the six-factor HEXACO model than with any of the Big Five dimensions.
Recent research has shown that the Honesty-Humility factor is strongly negatively correlated with the "Dark Triad" of personality (i.e. Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism).

Oliver James (psychologist)

Oliver JamesPsychologist Oliver James
Oliver James identifies Machiavellianism as one of the dark triadic personality traits in the workplace, the others being narcissism and psychopathy.
In his 2013 book, Office Politics: How to Thrive in a World of Lying, Backstabbing and Dirty Tricks, he identifies each of the three dark triadic personality traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism and psychopathy) as being common amongst senior managers.

Italian Renaissance

RenaissanceRenaissance ItalyItalian
The word comes from the Italian Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli, born in 1469, who wrote Il Principe (The Prince), among other works.

Huguenots

HuguenotFrench HuguenotFrench Huguenots
It was in this context that the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572 in Paris came to be seen as a product of Machiavellianism, a view greatly influenced by the Huguenot Innocent Gentillet, who published his Discours contre Machievel in 1576, which was printed in ten editions in three languages over the next four years.

William Shakespeare

ShakespeareShakespeareanShakespearian
The English playwrights William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe incorporated this view into some of their works.

Christopher Marlowe

MarloweC. MarloweChristopher "Kit" Marlowe
The English playwrights William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe incorporated this view into some of their works.

Henry VI, Part 3

3 Henry VI3Part 3
Shakespeare's Gloucester, later Richard III, refers to Machiavelli in Henry VI, Part III, for instance:

The Jew of Malta

BarabasJew of Malta
In The Jew of Malta (1589–90) "Machievel" in person speaks the Prologue, claiming not to be dead, but to have possessed the soul of (the Duke of) Guise, "And, now the Guise is dead, is come from France/ To view this land, and frolic with his friends" (Prologue, lines 3–4).

The Massacre at Paris

late playThe Massacre
Marlowe's last play, The Massacre at Paris (1593) takes the massacre, and the following years, as its subject, with the Duke of Guise and Catherine de' Medici both depicted as Machiavellian plotters, bent on evil from the start.

Henry I, Duke of Guise

Duke of GuiseHenry of GuiseHenry I
Marlowe's last play, The Massacre at Paris (1593) takes the massacre, and the following years, as its subject, with the Duke of Guise and Catherine de' Medici both depicted as Machiavellian plotters, bent on evil from the start.

Catherine de' Medici

CatherineCaterinaCatherine de Medici
Marlowe's last play, The Massacre at Paris (1593) takes the massacre, and the following years, as its subject, with the Duke of Guise and Catherine de' Medici both depicted as Machiavellian plotters, bent on evil from the start.

Frederick the Great

Frederick IIFrederick II of PrussiaFrederick
The Anti-Machiavel is an 18th-century essay by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire, rebutting The Prince, and Machiavellianism.

Prussia

PrussianPrussian statePrussian army
The Anti-Machiavel is an 18th-century essay by Frederick the Great, King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire, rebutting The Prince, and Machiavellianism.