Macintosh Toolbox

ToolboxToolbox ROM
The Macintosh Toolbox is a set of application programming interfaces with a particular access mechanism.wikipedia
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Classic Mac OS

Mac OSMacintoshMac OS Classic
They implement many of the high-level features of the Classic Mac OS.
This operating system consisted of the Macintosh Toolbox ROM and the "System Folder", a set of files that were loaded from disk.

New World ROM

New WorldNew World Macfirmware
This system was not used for PowerPC Linux, however, because Open Firmware in New World ROM machines requires a bootloader within an HFS filesystem—a reason having nothing to do with the Toolbox or "old-fashioned" Macs in general.
New World ROM computers are Macintosh models that do not use a Macintosh Toolbox ROM on the logic board.

Carbon (API)

CarbonCarbon APICarbonLib
Much of the Toolbox was restructured and implemented as part of Apple's Carbon programming API, allowing programmers familiar with the Toolbox to port their program code more easily to Mac OS X.
Much of the Macintosh Toolbox consisted of procedure calls, passing information back and forth between the API and program using a variety of data structures based on Pascal's variant record concept.

Macintosh

Apple MacintoshMacMacs
The Macintosh Toolbox is a set of application programming interfaces with a particular access mechanism.

Application programming interface

APIAPIsapplication programming interfaces
The Macintosh Toolbox is a set of application programming interfaces with a particular access mechanism.

QuickDraw

QuickDraw vector graphics
The Toolbox consists of a number of "managers," software components such as QuickDraw, responsible for drawing onscreen graphics, and the Menu Manager, which maintain data structures describing the menu bar.

Virtual memory

virtual storagememoryswap
As the original Macintosh was designed without virtual memory or memory protection, it was important to classify code according to when it should be loaded into memory or kept on disk, and how it should be accessed.

Memory protection

protected memorymemory protectedMemory protection key
As the original Macintosh was designed without virtual memory or memory protection, it was important to classify code according to when it should be loaded into memory or kept on disk, and how it should be accessed.

Instruction set architecture

instruction setinstructionsinstruction
The Toolbox consists of subroutines essential enough to be permanently kept in memory and accessible by a two-byte machine instruction; however it excludes core "kernel" functionality such as memory management and the file system.

File system

filesystemfile systemsfilesystems
The Toolbox consists of subroutines essential enough to be permanently kept in memory and accessible by a two-byte machine instruction; however it excludes core "kernel" functionality such as memory management and the file system.

Motorola 68000 series

68km68kMotorola 68000 family
The original Motorola 68000 family implementation of the Macintosh operating system executes system calls using that processor's illegal opcode exception handling mechanism.

Illegal opcode

illegal instructioninvalid opcodeundocumented instructions
The original Motorola 68000 family implementation of the Macintosh operating system executes system calls using that processor's illegal opcode exception handling mechanism.

Interrupt

interruptshardware interruptsoftware interrupt
The original Motorola 68000 family implementation of the Macintosh operating system executes system calls using that processor's illegal opcode exception handling mechanism.

Interrupt vector table

interrupt vectorvectorIRQ vector
Further, they each had their own dedicated interrupt vector, separate from the generic illegal opcode handler.

Motorola 68881

6888268881Motorola 68882
As 1111 was reserved for use by co-processors such as the 68881 FPU, Apple chose 1010 (hexadecimal A) as the prefix for operating system calls.

Floating-point unit

FPUfloating point unitmath coprocessor
As 1111 was reserved for use by co-processors such as the 68881 FPU, Apple chose 1010 (hexadecimal A) as the prefix for operating system calls.

Hexadecimal

hex0x16
As 1111 was reserved for use by co-processors such as the 68881 FPU, Apple chose 1010 (hexadecimal A) as the prefix for operating system calls.

Parameter (computer programming)

parameterparametersargument
The system was further optimized by allotting some bits of the A-trap instruction to store parameters to the most common functions.

Memory management

heapmemory allocationdynamic memory allocation
The Toolbox consists of subroutines essential enough to be permanently kept in memory and accessible by a two-byte machine instruction; however it excludes core "kernel" functionality such as memory management and the file system.

Boolean data type

booleanBoolean variableBoolean value
Sometimes the programmer wants to clear the memory block to zeros, so either the allocation function should take a boolean parameter, or there should be two allocation functions.

Dispatch table

function table
The Toolbox was defined as the set of subroutines which took no parameters within the A-trap, and were indexed from a 1024-entry, 4-kilobyte dispatch table.