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Microevolution

micro levelmicro-evolutionmicroevolutionary
Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population.
This change happens over a relatively short (in evolutionary terms) amount of time compared to the changes termed macroevolution which is where greater differences in the population occur.

Yuri Filipchenko

Russian entomologist Yuri Filipchenko first coined the terms "macroevolution" and "microevolution" in 1927 in his German language work, "Variabilität und Variation".
Yuri Filipchenko (Юрий Филипченко; sometimes spelled Philipchenko) (1882 — 1930) was a Russian entomologist who coined the terms microevolution and macroevolution, as well as the mentor of geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky.

Evolution

evolvedtheory of evolutionevolutionary
Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population. This was the vitalist belief that organisms evolve in a definite direction due to an internal "driving force".
These outcomes of evolution are distinguished based on time scale as macroevolution versus microevolution.

Modern synthesis (20th century)

modern synthesismodern evolutionary synthesisevolutionary synthesis
Within the modern synthesis of the early 20th century, macroevolution is thought of as the compounded effects of microevolution.
The modern synthesis also addressed the relationship between the broad-scale changes of macroevolution seen by palaeontologists and the small-scale microevolution of local populations of living organisms.

Speciation

divergedspeciatedspeciate
The process of speciation may fall within the purview of either, depending on the forces thought to drive it.

Evolutionary developmental biology

evo-devoevolutionary developmental biologistevolutionary development
Paleontology, evolutionary developmental biology, comparative genomics and genomic phylostratigraphy contribute most of the evidence for macroevolution's patterns and processes.
The biologists Stuart A. Newman and Gerd B. Müller have suggested that organisms early in the history of multicellular life were more susceptible to this second category of epigenetic determination than are modern organisms, providing a basis for early macroevolutionary changes.

Darwin (unit)

Darwindarwins
The measure is most useful in palaeontology, where macroevolutionary changes in the dimensions of fossils can be compared.

Species

specificspecific epithetspecific name
Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population.

Allele frequency

allele frequenciesgene frequenciesfrequency
Macroevolution is evolution on a scale at or above the level of species, in contrast with microevolution, which refers to smaller evolutionary changes of allele frequencies within a species or population.

Paleontology

paleontologistpalaeontologistpalaeontology
Paleontology, evolutionary developmental biology, comparative genomics and genomic phylostratigraphy contribute most of the evidence for macroevolution's patterns and processes.

Comparative genomics

comparative genomicgenomic samplingcomparative
Paleontology, evolutionary developmental biology, comparative genomics and genomic phylostratigraphy contribute most of the evidence for macroevolution's patterns and processes.

Genomic phylostratigraphy

Paleontology, evolutionary developmental biology, comparative genomics and genomic phylostratigraphy contribute most of the evidence for macroevolution's patterns and processes.

Entomology

entomologistentomologicalentomologists
Russian entomologist Yuri Filipchenko first coined the terms "macroevolution" and "microevolution" in 1927 in his German language work, "Variabilität und Variation".

Otto Schindewolf

SchindewolfOtto Heinrich SchindewolfSchindewolf O. H.
The term macroevolution fell into a certain disfavour when it was taken over by writers such as the paleontologist Otto Schindewolf to describe their theories of orthogenesis.

Orthogenesis

orthogeneticprogressive evolutionevolutionary progress
The term macroevolution fell into a certain disfavour when it was taken over by writers such as the paleontologist Otto Schindewolf to describe their theories of orthogenesis.

Vitalism

vitalistvitalisticvital force
This was the vitalist belief that organisms evolve in a definite direction due to an internal "driving force".

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
This was the vitalist belief that organisms evolve in a definite direction due to an internal "driving force".

Geologic time scale

geologic timescalegeologic timeperiod
Macroevolution includes changes occurring on geological time scales, in contrast to microevolution, which occurs on any time scale.

Ernst Mayr

MayrErnst W. MayrErnst Walter Mayr
As Ernst W. Mayr observes, "transspecific evolution is nothing but an extrapolation and magnification of the events that take place within populations and species...it is misleading to make a distinction between the causes of micro- and macroevolution".

Polyploidy

tetraploidpolyploidtriploid
However, time is not a necessary distinguishing factor – macroevolution can happen without gradual compounding of small changes; whole-genome duplication can result in speciation occurring over a single generation – this is especially common in plants.

Ontogeny

ontogeneticontogenesisdevelopment
Changes in the genes regulating development have also been proposed as being important in producing speciation through large and relatively sudden changes in animals' morphology.

Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
Over a long period of time, this can cause big effects on the genetics of organisms.

Taxonomy (biology)

taxonomictaxonomytaxonomist
Over a long period of time, this can cause big effects on the taxonomy of organisms, with the growth of whole new clades above the species level.

Morphology (biology)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
Over a long period of time, this can cause big effects on the morphology of major clades.

Cetacea

cetaceancetaceanswhales
This can be clearly seen in the Cetacea, where throughout the group's early evolution, hindlimbs were still present.