Macromolecule

macromoleculesmacromolecularmacromolecular chemistrybiological macromoleculemacromolecular complexesmacromolecular structuremacromolecular substancesbiomacromoleculescomplex lifelarge molecule
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits called monomers.wikipedia
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Biochemistry

biochemistbiochemicalbiological chemistry
The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates) and large non-polymeric molecules (such as lipids and macrocycles).
Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.

Hermann Staudinger

StaudingerStaudinger, Hermann
The term macromolecule (macro- + molecule) was coined by Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger in the 1920s, although his first relevant publication on this field only mentions high molecular compounds (in excess of 1,000 atoms).
Hermann Staudinger (23 March 1881 – 8 September 1965) was a German organic chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits called monomers. All living organisms are dependent on three essential biopolymers for their biological functions: DNA, RNA and proteins. Proteins are functional macromolecules responsible for catalysing the biochemical reactions that sustain life.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

Molecule

molecularmoleculesmolecular structure
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits called monomers.
Some of the largest molecules are macromolecules or supermolecules.

Macromolecular crowding

molecular crowdingcrowded cellular environmentcrowded cellular environments
High concentrations of macromolecules in a solution can alter the rates and equilibrium constants of the reactions of other macromolecules, through an effect known as macromolecular crowding.
The phenomenon of macromolecular crowding alters the properties of molecules in a solution when high concentrations of macromolecules such as proteins are present.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
All living organisms are dependent on three essential biopolymers for their biological functions: DNA, RNA and proteins.
DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

Covalent bond

covalentcovalentlycovalently bonded
For example, while biology refers to macromolecules as the four large molecules comprising living things, in chemistry, the term may refer to aggregates of two or more molecules held together by intermolecular forces rather than covalent bonds but which do not readily dissociate.
There are several types of structures for covalent substances, including individual molecules, molecular structures, macromolecular structures and giant covalent structures.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
All living organisms are dependent on three essential biopolymers for their biological functions: DNA, RNA and proteins.
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

Binding site

binding sitesbindingbinding sites, antibody
These different shapes are responsible for many of the common properties of RNA and proteins, including the formation of specific binding pockets, and the ability to catalyse biochemical reactions.
In biochemistry and molecular biology, a binding site is a region on a macromolecule such as a protein that binds to another molecule with specificity.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Proteins are functional macromolecules responsible for catalysing the biochemical reactions that sustain life.
These biochemicals can be joined together to make polymers such as DNA and proteins, essential macromolecules of life.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
All living organisms are dependent on three essential biopolymers for their biological functions: DNA, RNA and proteins.
Compounds that make up organisms may be divided into macromolecules and other, smaller molecules.

Nucleotide

nucleotidesntdinucleotide
DNA, RNA, and proteins all consist of a repeating structure of related building blocks (nucleotides in the case of DNA and RNA, amino acids in the case of proteins).
Nucleic acids then are polymeric macromolecules assembled from nucleotides, the monomer-units of nucleic acids.

Polysaccharide

polysaccharidesheteropolysaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Carbohydrate macromolecules (polysaccharides) are formed from polymers of monosaccharides.
Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks.

Colloid

colloidscolloidalcolloid chemistry
Another common macromolecular property that does not characterize smaller molecules is their relative insolubility in water and similar solvents, instead forming colloids.
Thus, it has been known for many years that, due to repulsive Coulombic interactions, electrically charged macromolecules in an aqueous environment can exhibit long-range crystal-like correlations with interparticle separation distances, often being considerably greater than the individual particle diameter.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Each of these molecules is required for life since each plays a distinct, indispensable role in the cell.

Biomolecular structure

structuresstructuretertiary structure
Therefore, they are not constrained by the regular geometry of the DNA double helix, and so fold into complex three-dimensional shapes dependent on their sequence.
The tertiary structure of a protein or any other macromolecule is its three-dimensional structure, as defined by the atomic coordinates.

Polyphenol

polyphenolsphenolicphenolics
Polyphenols consist of a branched structure of multiple phenolic subunits.
As opposed to smaller phenols, polyphenols are often larger molecules (macromolecules) deposited in cell vacuoles.

Toxin

toxinstoxicbiotoxin
They can perform structural roles (e.g. lignin) as well as roles as secondary metabolites involved in signalling, pigmentation and defense.
Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorption by body tissues interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes or cellular receptors.

Geopolymer

Geopolymerspozzolanic cements
Polymers may be prepared from inorganic matter as well as for instance in inorganic polymers and geopolymers.
According to T.F. Yen geopolymers can be classified into two major groups: pure inorganic geopolymers and organic containing geopolymers, synthetic analogues of naturally occurring macromolecules.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates) and large non-polymeric molecules (such as lipids and macrocycles). Carbohydrate macromolecules (polysaccharides) are formed from polymers of monosaccharides.

Polymerization

polymerisationpolymerizepolymerized
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits called monomers.

Monomer

monomersmonomeric-mer
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits called monomers.

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
They are typically composed of thousands of atoms or more.

Biopolymer

biopolymersbio-polymerbiological polymers
The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates) and large non-polymeric molecules (such as lipids and macrocycles). All living organisms are dependent on three essential biopolymers for their biological functions: DNA, RNA and proteins.

Nucleic acid

nucleic acidsNAmolecular basis
The most common macromolecules in biochemistry are biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates) and large non-polymeric molecules (such as lipids and macrocycles).