Magister militum

magistri militummagister peditummagister militum per Orientemmagister militum praesentalismagister utriusque militiaeMagister militum per GalliasMasters of the Soldiersmagister militum per Thraciasmagister utriusque militaemagister militum per Illyricum
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great.wikipedia
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Constantine the Great

ConstantineConstantine IEmperor Constantine
Magister militum (Latin for "Master of the Soldiers", plural magistri militum) was a top-level military command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine the Great. The title of magister militum was created in the 4th century, when Emperor Constantine the Great deprived the praetorian prefects of their military functions.
He restructured the government, separating civil and military authorities.

Praetorian prefect

prefectpraefectus praetoriopraefecti praetorio
The title of magister militum was created in the 4th century, when Emperor Constantine the Great deprived the praetorian prefects of their military functions.
Under Constantine I, the institution of the magister militum deprived the praetorian prefecture altogether of its military character but left it the highest civil office of the empire.

Ricimer

Flavius Ricimer
This powerful office was often the power behind the throne and was held by Stilicho, Flavius Aetius, Ricimer, and others.
Deriving his power from his position as magister militum of the Western Empire, Ricimer exercised political control through a series of puppet emperors.

Theme (Byzantine district)

themethemathemes
Indeed, after the loss of the eastern provinces to the Muslim conquest in the 640s, the surviving field armies and their commanders formed the first themata.
In essence however they merely recognized and formalized the greater prominence of the local general, or magister militum, over the respective civilian praetorian prefect as a result of the provinces' precarious security situation.

Flavius Aetius

AetiusAëtiusEzio
This powerful office was often the power behind the throne and was held by Stilicho, Flavius Aetius, Ricimer, and others.
He sent back his army of Huns and in return obtained the rank of comes et magister militum per Gallias, the commander in chief of the Roman army in Gaul.

Stratelates

StratēlatēsstratelataiStratēlatai
In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates.
In the late Roman/early Byzantine Empire, the title was used, along with the old-established stratēgos, to translate into Greek the office of magister militum ("master of the soldiers").

Praetorian prefecture

praetorian prefecturesPrefecturepraetorian prefect
Under Constantine's successors, the title was also established at a territorial level: magistri peditum and magistri equitum were appointed for every praetorian prefecture (per Gallias, per Italiam, per Illyricum, per Orientem), and, in addition, for Thrace and, sometimes, Africa.
The prefect's military duties were removed by the creation of the purely military offices of the magister peditum and magister equitum ("Master of the Foot/Horse"), and the establishment of the magister officiorum as the powerful head of the palatine bureaucracy and the civil service at large provided a counterbalance to the prefect's power.

Arbogast (general)

ArbogastArbogastesFlavius Arbogastes
385/8-394: Arbogast, magister militum under Valentinian II and Eugenius
It has been stated by some ancient historians that he was the son of Flavius Bauto, Valentinian II's former magister militum and protector before Arbogast, but modern scholars largely discount this claim.

Comitatenses

comitatuscomitatensismobile field units
As such they were directly in command of the local mobile field army of the comitatenses, composed mostly of cavalry, which acted as a rapid reaction force.
However, historically it became the accepted (substantiated) name for those Roman imperial troops (legions and auxiliary) which were not merely garrisoned at a limes (fortified border, on the Rhine and Danube in Europe and near Persia and the desert tribes elsewhere)—the limitanei or ripenses, i.e. "along the shores"—but more mobile line troops; furthermore there were second line troops, named pseudocomitatensis, former limitanei attached to the comitatus; palatini, elite ("palace") units typically assigned to the magister militum; and the scholae palatinae of actual palace guards, usually under the magister officiorum, a senior court official of the Late Empire.

Constantius III

ConstantiusFlavius Constantius
411 – 421: Flavius Constantius
He earned his position as Emperor due to his capability as a general under Honorius, achieving the rank of Magister militum by 411.

Praetorian prefecture of Africa

AfricaPraetorian Prefect of AfricaThe Moorish Wars
During the reign of Emperor Justinian I, with increasing military threats and the expansion of the Eastern Empire, three new posts were created: the magister militum per Armeniam in the Armenian and Caucasian provinces, formerly part of the jurisdiction of the magister militum per Orientem, the magister militum per Africam in the reconquered African provinces (534), with a subordinate magister peditum, and the magister militum Spaniae (ca.
The military administration was headed by the new post of magister militum Africae, with a subordinate magister peditum and four regional frontier commands (Leptis Magna for Tripolitania, Capsa or Thelepte for Byzacena, Cirta for Numidia, and Caesarea for Mauretania ) under duces.

Flavius Bauto

383-385/8: Flavius Bauto, magister militum under Valentinian II
Flavius Bauto (died c. 385) was a Romanised Frank who served as a magister militum of the Roman Empire.

Eugenius

Flavius EugeniusFlavius Eugenius Augustus
385/8-394: Arbogast, magister militum under Valentinian II and Eugenius
A former teacher of grammar and rhetoric, as well as magister scrinorum, Eugenius was an acquaintance of the Frankish magister militum and of the de facto ruler of the western portion of the Empire, Arbogast.

Ecdicius

Ecdicius Avitus
475: Ecdicius Avitus
Ecdicius Avitus (c. 420 – after 475) was a Gallo-Roman aristocrat, senator, and magister militum praesentalis from 474 until 475.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
In the Western Roman Empire, a "commander-in-chief" evolved with the title of magister utriusque militiae.
In 392, the Frankish and pagan magister militum Arbogast assassinated Valentinian II and proclaimed an obscure senator named Eugenius as Emperor.

Aegidius

458–461: Aegidius
Before his ascension, he became magister militum per Gallias (Master of the Soldiers for Gaul) serving under Aetius, in 458AD.

Strategos

strategoistratēgosstrategus
In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates.
Initially, the term was used along with stratelates and, less often, stratopedarches, to render the supreme military office of magister militum (the general in command of a field army), but could also be employed for the regional duces.

Power behind the throne

behind the thronede facto rulerde facto'' dictator
This powerful office was often the power behind the throne and was held by Stilicho, Flavius Aetius, Ricimer, and others.
Earlier examples include the magistri militum of the later decades of the Western Roman Empire.

Orestes (5th century general)

OrestesFlavius Orestes
475–476: Flavius Orestes
In 475, Orestes was appointed magister militum and patricius by Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos.

Felix (consul 428)

Flavius FelixFelixFlavius Constantius Felix
425 - 430: Flavius Constantius Felix
Between 425 (year in which he was made patricius) and 429 he served as magister utriusque militae in defense of Italy, but despite a brief mention of one of his military actions in the Notitia Dignitatum, his subordinates Bonifacius and Flavius Aetius were considered more significant in this regard.

Flavius Gaudentius

Gaudentius
? – 419: Flavius Gaudentius
Flavius Gaudentius (or simply Gaudentius) (died 425 AD) was the father of the Roman magister militum Flavius Aetius and married to an Italian noblewoman.

Avitus

EparchiusEparchius AvitusM. Maecilius Eparchius Avitus Augustus
455 - 456: Avitus & Remistus
Avitus had two sons, Agricola (fl 455 – living 507, a vir illustris) and Ecdicius Avitus (later patricius and magister militum under Emperor Julius Nepos) and a daughter Papianilla; she married Sidonius Apollinaris, whose letters and panegyrics remain an important source for Avitus' life and times.

Agrippinus (magister militum)

Agrippinus
452–458: Agrippinus
Agrippinus (floruit 451-461) was a general of the Western Roman Empire, Magister militum per Gallias under emperors Valentinian III, Petronius Maximus, Avitus and Libius Severus.

Onoulphus

HunoulphHunulf
477–479: Onoulphus
He served as magister militum per Illyricum from 477 to 479 as a general of the Eastern Roman Empire, then afterwards was a general for his brother Odoacer, king of Italy, until their death.

Litorius

435-439: Litorius
Litorius (died 439) was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire serving as Magister militum per Gallias from 435 until his death mainly in Gaul under magister militum Flavius Aetius.