Magnesium deficiency

hypomagnesemiamagnesiumlow blood magnesiumhypomagnesaemiaHypomagnesiaLow levels of magnesiumlow magnesiumMagnesium deficiency (medicine)deficienthypomagnesemic
Magnesium deficiency is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the body.wikipedia
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Torsades de pointes

torsade de pointesTorsadestorsades de pointe
Complications may include seizures or cardiac arrest such as from torsade de pointes.
Common causes for torsades de pointes include drug-induced QT prolongation and less often diarrhea, low serum magnesium, and low serum potassium or congenital long QT syndrome.

Hypokalemia

hypokalaemialow blood potassiumhypokalemic
Those with low magnesium often have low potassium. Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death.
Causes of hypokalemia include vomiting, diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet.

Cramp

crampsmuscle crampsmuscle cramp
Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death.
Skeletal muscle cramps may be caused by muscle fatigue or a lack of electrolytes such as sodium (a condition called hyponatremia), potassium (called hypokalemia), or magnesium (called magnesium deficiency).

Palpitations

palpitationheart palpitationsheart palpitation
Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death.
Palpitation may be associated with coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and emphysema; previous chest surgery; kidney disease; blood loss and pain; drugs such as antidepressants, statins, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines; electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine and iron.

Chondrocalcinosis

calcifiedcalcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal depositionspseudogout
Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death.

Proton-pump inhibitor

proton pump inhibitorproton pump inhibitorsproton-pump inhibitors
A number of medications may also cause low magnesium, including proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and furosemide.
Low levels of magnesium can be found in people on PPI therapy and these can be reversed when they are switched to H2-receptor antagonist medications.

Tetany

Heat tetanyspasms
Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death.

Alcoholism

alcoholicalcoholicsalcohol
Causes include low dietary intake, alcoholism, diarrhea, increased urinary loss, poor absorption from the intestines, and diabetes mellitus.
Electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities including hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, hyperuricemia, metabolic acidosis, and respiratory alkalosis are common in alcoholics.

CLDN16

Claudin-16Cldn 16
Defects in this gene are a cause of primary hypomagnesemia, which is characterized by massive renal magnesium wasting with hypomagnesemia and hypercalciuria, resulting in nephrocalcinosis and renal failure.

Paresthesia

paraesthesiatinglingparesthesias
Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death.

Hypoparathyroidism

hypo-Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism
Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death. This inhibits the release of parathyroid hormone, which can result in hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia.

Mycophenolic acid

mycophenolate mofetilmycophenolateCellcept
Other changes in blood chemistry such as hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) can occur.

Amphotericin B

amphotericinliposomal amphotericin BAbelcet
In addition, electrolyte imbalances such as hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia are also common.

Hypermagnesemia

magnesium toxicityHigh blood levels of magnesium (hypermagnesemia)
Elevated levels of magnesium (hypermagnesemia) are nearly always caused by a medical treatment.
For a detailed description of magnesium homeostasis and metabolism see hypomagnesemia.

Magnesium (medical use)

Magnesium (pharmaceutical preparation)magnesium preparationmagnesium supplementation
Numerous oral magnesium preparations are available.
They are used to treat magnesium deficiency, low blood magnesium, eclampsia, and several other conditions.

CNNM2

Mutations in this gene are associated with renal hypomagnesemia.

Magnesium in biology

magnesiumMg 2+ magnesium ion
Acute deficiency (see hypomagnesemia) is rare, and is more common as a drug side-effect (such as chronic alcohol or diuretic use) than from low food intake per se, but it can occur in people fed intravenously for extended periods of time.

Parathyroid hormone

PTHParathormoneparathyroid hyperplasia
This inhibits the release of parathyroid hormone, which can result in hypoparathyroidism and hypocalcemia.
Severe hypomagnesemia inhibits PTH secretion and also causes resistance to PTH, leading to a form of hypoparathyroidism that is reversible.

Magnesium sulfate

Epsom saltsEpsom saltmagnesium sulphate
For those with severe symptoms, intravenous magnesium sulfate may be used.

Chlorophyll

chlorophyllschlorophyll ''aLeaf green
It can be found in green vegetables, chlorophyll, cocoa derivatives, nuts, wheat, seafood, and meat.
Chlorosis can be caused by a nutrient deficiency of iron — called iron chlorosis — or by a shortage of magnesium or nitrogen.

Magnesium

MgMg 2+ Mg2+
Magnesium deficiency is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the body.
Low plasma magnesium (hypomagnesemia) is common: it is found in 2.5–15% of the general population.

Electrolyte imbalance

electrolyte problemselectrolyte disturbanceelectrolyte abnormalities
Magnesium deficiency is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the body.

Tremor

tremblingshakingmuscle tremor
Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms, increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors, paresthesias, palpitations, low potassium levels in the blood, hypoparathyroidism which might result in low calcium levels in the blood, chondrocalcinosis, spasticity and tetany, migraines, epileptic seizures, basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma, intellectual disability or death. Symptoms include tremor, poor coordination, muscle spasms, loss of appetite, personality changes, and nystagmus.