A report on Magnetic field and Paramagnetism

The shape of the magnetic field produced by a horseshoe magnet is revealed by the orientation of iron filings sprinkled on a piece of paper above the magnet.
When liquid oxygen is poured from a beaker into a strong magnet, the oxygen is temporarily contained between the magnetic poles owing to its paramagnetism.
Right hand grip rule: a current flowing in the direction of the white arrow produces a magnetic field shown by the red arrows.
Idealized Curie–Weiss behavior; N.B. TC=θ, but TN is not θ. Paramagnetic regimes are denoted by solid lines. Close to TN or TC the behavior usually deviates from ideal.
A Solenoid with electric current running through it behaves like a magnet.
A sketch of Earth's magnetic field representing the source of the field as a magnet. The south pole of the magnetic field is near the geographic north pole of the Earth.
One of the first drawings of a magnetic field, by René Descartes, 1644, showing the Earth attracting lodestones. It illustrated his theory that magnetism was caused by the circulation of tiny helical particles, "threaded parts", through threaded pores in magnets.
Hans Christian Ørsted, Der Geist in der Natur, 1854

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby some materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

- Paramagnetism

Paramagnetic materials produce a magnetization in the same direction as the applied magnetic field.

- Magnetic field
The shape of the magnetic field produced by a horseshoe magnet is revealed by the orientation of iron filings sprinkled on a piece of paper above the magnet.

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A magnet made of alnico, a ferromagnetic iron alloy, with its keeper

Ferromagnetism

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Basic mechanism by which certain materials form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

Basic mechanism by which certain materials form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

A magnet made of alnico, a ferromagnetic iron alloy, with its keeper
Electromagnetic dynamic magnetic domain motion of grain-oriented electrical silicon steel
Kerr micrograph of metal surface showing magnetic domains, with red and green stripes denoting opposite magnetization directions
Moving domain walls in a grain of silicon steel caused by an increasing external magnetic field in the "downward" direction, observed in a Kerr microscope. White areas are domains with magnetization directed up, dark areas are domains with magnetization directed down.

Substances respond weakly to magnetic fields with three other types of magnetism—paramagnetism, diamagnetism, and antiferromagnetism—but the forces are usually so weak that they can be detected only by sensitive instruments in a laboratory.

Permanent magnets (materials that can be magnetized by an external magnetic field and remain magnetized after the external field is removed) are either ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic, as are the materials that are noticeably attracted to them.

An electrostatic analog for a magnetic moment: two opposing charges separated by a finite distance.

Magnetic moment

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An electrostatic analog for a magnetic moment: two opposing charges separated by a finite distance.
Image of a solenoid
Magnetic field lines around a "magnetostatic dipole". The magnetic dipole itself is located in the center of the figure, seen from the side, and pointing upward.
The magnetic field of a current loop

In electromagnetism, the magnetic moment is the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.

An applied magnetic field can flip the magnetic dipoles that make up the material causing both paramagnetism and ferromagnetism.

When the microscopic currents induced by the magnetization (black arrows) do not balance out, bound volume currents (blue arrows) and bound surface currents (red arrows) appear in the medium.

Magnetization

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Vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced magnetic dipole moments in a magnetic material.

Vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced magnetic dipole moments in a magnetic material.

When the microscopic currents induced by the magnetization (black arrows) do not balance out, bound volume currents (blue arrows) and bound surface currents (red arrows) appear in the medium.

Net magnetization results from the response of a material to an external magnetic field.

Paramagnetic materials have a weak induced magnetization in a magnetic field, which disappears when the magnetic field is removed.

Schematic diagram depicting the spin of the neutron as the black arrow and magnetic field lines associated with the neutron magnetic moment. The neutron has a negative magnetic moment. While the spin of the neutron is upward in this diagram, the magnetic field lines at the center of the dipole are downward.

Spin (physics)

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Intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, and thus by composite particles and atomic nuclei.

Intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, and thus by composite particles and atomic nuclei.

Schematic diagram depicting the spin of the neutron as the black arrow and magnetic field lines associated with the neutron magnetic moment. The neutron has a negative magnetic moment. While the spin of the neutron is upward in this diagram, the magnetic field lines at the center of the dipole are downward.
A single point in space can spin continuously without becoming tangled. Notice that after a 360-degree rotation, the spiral flips between clockwise and counterclockwise orientations. It returns to its original configuration after spinning a full 720°.
Wolfgang Pauli lecturing

These magnetic moments can be experimentally observed in several ways, e.g. by the deflection of particles by inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a Stern–Gerlach experiment, or by measuring the magnetic fields generated by the particles themselves.

In paramagnetic materials, the magnetic dipole moments of individual atoms spontaneously align with an externally applied magnetic field.

Helium Vector Magnetometer (HVM) of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft

Magnetometer

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Helium Vector Magnetometer (HVM) of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft
The Magnetometer experiment for the Juno orbiter for Juno can be seen here on the end of a boom. The spacecraft uses two fluxgate magnetometers. (see also Magnetometer (Juno))
The compass is a simple type of magnetometer.
Coast and Geodetic Survey Magnetometer No. 18.
A uniaxial fluxgate magnetometer
A fluxgate compass/inclinometer
Aust.-Synchrotron,-Quadrupole-Magnets-of-Linac,-14.06.2007
A Diamond DA42 light aircraft, modified for aerial survey with a nose-mounted boom containing a magnetometer at its tip
Tri-axis Electronic Magnetometer by AKM Semiconductor, inside Motorola Xoom
Ground surveying in Surprise Valley, Cedarville, California

A magnetometer is a device that measures magnetic field or magnetic dipole moment.

Ordering of magnetic moments are primarily classified as diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, or antiferromagnetic (although the zoology of magnetic ordering also includes ferrimagnetic, helimagnetic, toroidal, spin glass, etc.).

Pyrolytic carbon has one of the largest diamagnetic constants of any room temperature material. Here a pyrolytic carbon sheet is levitated by its repulsion from the strong magnetic field of neodymium magnets.

Diamagnetism

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Pyrolytic carbon has one of the largest diamagnetic constants of any room temperature material. Here a pyrolytic carbon sheet is levitated by its repulsion from the strong magnetic field of neodymium magnets.
Diamagnetic material interaction in magnetic field.
Transition from ordinary conductivity (left) to superconductivity (right). At the transition, the superconductor expels the magnetic field and then acts as a perfect diamagnet.
A live frog levitates inside a 32 mm diameter vertical bore of a Bitter solenoid in a magnetic field of about 16 teslas at the Nijmegen High Field Magnet Laboratory.

Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.

In contrast, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials are attracted by a magnetic field.

Antiferromagnetic ordering

Antiferromagnetism

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In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the magnetic moments of atoms or molecules, usually related to the spins of electrons, align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins (on different sublattices) pointing in opposite directions.

In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the magnetic moments of atoms or molecules, usually related to the spins of electrons, align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins (on different sublattices) pointing in opposite directions.

Antiferromagnetic ordering

Above the Néel temperature, the material is typically paramagnetic.

The relationship between magnetization and the magnetizing field is non-linear like in ferromagnetic materials.