Magnetic susceptibility

susceptibilitymagnetic susceptibilitiesvolume magnetic susceptibilitycouple magneticallydiamagnetic susceptibilityIntensity of magnetizationmagneticmagnetic susceptibility tensorspecific susceptibilityχ
In electromagnetism, the magnetic susceptibility (Latin: susceptibilis, "receptive"; denoted ) is a measure of how much a material will become magnetized in an applied magnetic field.wikipedia
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Permeability (electromagnetism)

permeabilitymagnetic permeabilityrelative permeability
A closely related parameter is the permeability, which expresses the total magnetization of material and volume.
A closely related property of materials is magnetic susceptibility, which is a dimensionless proportionality factor that indicates the degree of magnetization of a material in response to an applied magnetic field.

Paramagnetism

paramagneticparamagnetParamagnetic materials
. This allows a simple classification of most materials' response to an applied magnetic field into two categories: an alignment with the magnetic field, χ>0, called paramagnetism, or an alignment against the field, χ
Paramagnetic materials include most chemical elements and some compounds; they have a relative magnetic permeability slightly greater than 1 (i.e., a small positive magnetic susceptibility) and hence are attracted to magnetic fields.

Gouy balance

Early measurements are made using the Gouy balance where a sample is hung between the poles of an electromagnet.
The Gouy balance, invented by Louis Georges Gouy, is a device for measuring the magnetic susceptibility of a sample.

Evans balance

This system, widely used today, is called the Evans balance.
An Evans balance, also known as a Johnson-Matthey balance (after the most prolific producer of the Evans balance) is a device for measuring magnetic susceptibility.

Tensor

tensorsorderrank
. In these cases, volume susceptibility is defined as a tensor
Tensors are important in physics because they provide a concise mathematical framework for formulating and solving physics problems in areas such as mechanics (stress, elasticity, fluid mechanics, moment of inertia, ...), electrodynamics (electromagnetic tensor, Maxwell tensor, permittivity, magnetic susceptibility, ...), or general relativity (stress–energy tensor, curvature tensor, ... ) and others.

De Haas–van Alphen effect

de Haas-van Alphen effectde Haas–van Alphen experiments
This behaviour is known as the de Haas–van Alphen effect and relates the period of the susceptibility with the Fermi surface of the material.
The de Haas–van Alphen effect, often abbreviated to dHvA, is a quantum mechanical effect in which the magnetic susceptibility of a pure metal crystal oscillates as the intensity of the magnetic field B is increased.

Diamagnetism

diamagneticdiamagnetanti-magnetic
. This allows a simple classification of most materials' response to an applied magnetic field into two categories: an alignment with the magnetic field, χ>0, called paramagnetism, or an alignment against the field, χ
Diamagnetic materials, like water, or water-based materials, have a relative magnetic permeability that is less than or equal to 1, and therefore a magnetic susceptibility less than or equal to 0, since susceptibility is defined as χ v = μ v − 1.

Magnetization

magnetizedbound currentdemagnetization
Magnetic susceptibility is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of magnetization of a material in response to an applied magnetic field.
where χ is called the volume magnetic susceptibility.

Antiferromagnetism

antiferromagneticantiferromagnetantiferromagnetically
Ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, or antiferromagnetic materials possess permanent magnetization even without external magnetic field and do not have a well defined zero-field susceptibility.
The magnetic susceptibility of an antiferromagnetic material typically shows a maximum at the Néel temperature.

Gaussian units

Gaussiancgs-Gaussian unitsGaussian-cgs units
However, many tables of magnetic susceptibility give cgs values (more specifically emu-cgs, short for electromagnetic units, or Gaussian-cgs; both are the same in this context).
For one thing, in Gaussian units, all of the following quantities have the same dimension: E, D, P, B, H, and M. Another important point is that the electric and magnetic susceptibility of a material is dimensionless in both Gaussian and SI units, but a given material will have a different numerical susceptibility in the two systems.

Electric susceptibility

susceptibilityelectricmolecular polarizability
The volume magnetic susceptibility, represented by the symbol (often simply, sometimes – magnetic, to distinguish from the electric susceptibility), is defined in the International System of Units — in other systems there may be additional constants — by the following relationship:
Magnetic susceptibility

Magnetic moment

magnetic dipole momentmagnetic momentsdipole moment
A related term is magnetizability, the proportion between magnetic moment and magnetic flux density.
Magnetic susceptibility

Kilogram

kgmgmilligram
The addition of 10% iridium improved upon the all-platinum Kilogram of the Archives by greatly increasing hardness while still retaining platinum's many virtues: extreme resistance to oxidation, extremely high density (almost twice as dense as lead and more than 21 times as dense as water), satisfactory electrical and thermal conductivities, and low magnetic susceptibility.

Fermi surface

Fermi sphereFermi wavevectorlevels of energy
This behaviour is known as the de Haas–van Alphen effect and relates the period of the susceptibility with the Fermi surface of the material.
The former is an oscillation in magnetic susceptibility and the latter in resistivity.

Curie constant

Curie constant
The Curie constant is a material-dependent property that relates a material's magnetic susceptibility to its temperature.

Ferromagnetism

ferromagneticferromagnetferromagnets
Ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, or antiferromagnetic materials possess permanent magnetization even without external magnetic field and do not have a well defined zero-field susceptibility. Electrons are present in all materials, but without any external magnetic field, the magnetic moments of the electrons are usually in some way either paired up or randomized so the overall magnetism is zero.(the exception to this usual case is ferromagnetism) The fundamental reasons why the magnetic moments of the electrons line up or don't can be very complex, and can not be explained with classical physics.
The Curie temperature itself is a critical point, where the magnetic susceptibility is theoretically infinite and, although there is no net magnetization, domain-like spin correlations fluctuate at all length scales.

Quantitative susceptibility mapping

Quantitative susceptibility mapping
Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) provides a novel contrast mechanism in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) different from traditional Susceptibility Weighted Imaging.

Coercivity

coercive fieldmagnetic coercivitycoercive force
. When the coercivity of the material parallel to an applied field is the smaller of the two, the differential susceptibility is a function of the applied field and self interactions, such as the magnetic anisotropy.
Susceptibility

Susceptibility weighted imaging

SWI
Susceptibility weighted imaging
This method exploits the susceptibility differences between tissues and uses the phase image to detect these differences.

Centimetre–gram–second system of units

cgscgs unitsCGS unit
However, many tables of magnetic susceptibility give cgs values (more specifically emu-cgs, short for electromagnetic units, or Gaussian-cgs; both are the same in this context).
Also, lack of unique unit names leads to a great confusion: thus “15 emu” may mean either 15 abvolts, or 15 emu units of electric dipole moment, or 15 emu units of magnetic susceptibility, sometimes (but not always) per gram, or per mole.

Fused quartz

fused silicasilica glassquartz glass
Magnetic susceptibility: −11.28×10 −6 (SI, 22°C)

Electromagnetism

electromagneticelectromagnetic forceelectromagnetics
In electromagnetism, the magnetic susceptibility (Latin: susceptibilis, "receptive"; denoted ) is a measure of how much a material will become magnetized in an applied magnetic field.

Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
In electromagnetism, the magnetic susceptibility (Latin: susceptibilis, "receptive"; denoted ) is a measure of how much a material will become magnetized in an applied magnetic field.

Chemical bond

bondbondschemical bonds
Quantitative measures of the magnetic susceptibility also provide insights into the structure of materials, providing insight into bonding and energy levels.