Magnus Hirschfeld

Dr Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld Archive of SexologyJahrbuch für sexuelle ZwischenstufenMagnus Hirschfeld National FoundationMagnus HirschfieldScientific Humanitarian Committee
Magnus Hirschfeld (14 May 1868 – 14 May 1935) was a German physician and sexologist educated primarily in Germany; he based his practice in Berlin-Charlottenburg during the Weimar period.wikipedia
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Institut für Sexualwissenschaft

Institute for Sexual ResearchInstitute for Sexual ScienceInstitute of Sex Research
Hirschfeld was targeted by the right-wing for being Jewish and gay, he was beaten up by völkisch activists in 1920, and in 1933 his Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was sacked and had its books burned by the Nazis, forcing him into exile.
It was headed by Magnus Hirschfeld.

LGBT social movements

gay rights movementgay rightsLGBTQ rights movement
Historian Dustin Goltz characterized this group as having carried out "the first advocacy for homosexual and transgender rights".
An early LGBT movement also began in Germany at the turn of the 20th century, centering on the doctor and writer Magnus Hirschfeld.

Scientific-Humanitarian Committee

Scientific Humanitarian CommitteeWissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komiteebirthplace of the LGBT rights movement
An outspoken advocate for sexual minorities, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee. In 1897, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee with the publisher Max Spohr, the lawyer Eduard Oberg, and the writer Franz Joseph von Bülow.
The WhK was founded on 15 May 1897 (four days before Oscar Wilde's release from prison) by Magnus Hirschfeld, a Jewish-German physician, sexologist and outspoken advocate for gender and sexual minorities.

Sexology

sexologistsexologistssex researcher
Magnus Hirschfeld (14 May 1868 – 14 May 1935) was a German physician and sexologist educated primarily in Germany; he based his practice in Berlin-Charlottenburg during the Weimar period.
Ellis pioneered transgender phenomena alongside the German Magnus Hirschfeld.

World League for Sexual Reform

World Sexual Reform Congress
In 1921, Hirschfeld organised the First Congress for Sexual Reform, which led to the formation of the World League for Sexual Reform.
In 1921 Magnus Hirschfeld organised the First Congress for Sexual Reform, which led to the formation of the League.

Benedict Friedlaender

Benedict Friedländer
Benedict Friedlaender and some others left the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee and formed another group, the "Bund für männliche Kultur" or Union for Male Culture, which did not exist long.
He gave substantial financial support to Magnus Hirschfeld's Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee, or WhK) in Berlin.

Homosexuality

homosexualgayhomosexuals
The group aimed to undertake research to defend the rights of homosexuals and to repeal Paragraph 175, the section of the German penal code that, since 1871, had criminalized homosexuality.
Although medical texts like these (written partly in Latin to obscure the sexual details) were not widely read by the general public, they did lead to the rise of Magnus Hirschfeld's Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, which campaigned from 1897 to 1933 against anti-sodomy laws in Germany, as well as a much more informal, unpublicized movement among British intellectuals and writers, led by such figures as Edward Carpenter and John Addington Symonds.

Transsexual

transsexualismtranssexualstranssexuality
Transvestit), which he coined in 1910 to describe people who, in the 21st century, might be referred to as transgender or transsexual.
Norman Haire reported that in 1921, Dora R of Germany began a surgical transition, under the care of Magnus Hirschfeld, which ended in 1930 with a successful genital reassignment surgery.

Transvestism

transvestitetransvestitestransvestitism
He developed a system which categorised 64 possible types of sexual intermediary, ranging from masculine, heterosexual male to feminine, homosexual male, including those he described under the term transvestite (Ger.
Magnus Hirschfeld coined the word transvestite in 1910 (from Latin trans-, "across, over" and vestitus, "dressed") to refer to the sexual interest in cross-dressing.

Helene Stöcker

In 1905, Hirschfeld joined the Bund für Mutterschutz (League for the Protection of Mothers), the feminist organization founded by Helene Stöcker.
In 1909, she joined Magnus Hirschfeld in successfully lobbying German parliament from including lesbian women in the law criminalising homosexuality.

Karl Giese

Hirschfeld himself lived at the Institution on the second floor with his lover, Karl Giese, together with his sister Recha Tobias (9 June 1857- 28 Sept. 1942).
Karl Giese (1898 - March 1938) was a German archivist, museum curator and life partner of Magnus Hirschfeld.

Paragraph 175

§ 175anti-sodomy laws in Germany§175
The group aimed to undertake research to defend the rights of homosexuals and to repeal Paragraph 175, the section of the German penal code that, since 1871, had criminalized homosexuality.
This case was argued, for example, in an 1897 petition drafted by physician and WhK chairman Magnus Hirschfeld, urging the deletion of Paragraph 175; it gathered 6,000 signatories.

Coming out

came outopenlyopenly gay
The film had a specific gay rights law reform agenda; after Veidt's character is blackmailed by a male prostitute, he eventually comes out rather than continuing to make the blackmail payments.
In 1914, Magnus Hirschfeld revisited the topic in his major work The Homosexuality of Men and Women, discussing the social and legal potentials of several thousand homosexual men and women of rank revealing their sexual orientation to the police in order to influence legislators and public opinion.

Kołobrzeg

KolbergKolobrzegColberg
Hirschfeld was born in Kolberg (now Kołobrzeg, Poland), in an Ashkenazi Jewish family, the son of a highly regarded physician and Senior Medical Officer Hermann Hirschfeld.

Conrad Veidt

Hirschfeld co-wrote and acted in the 1919 film Anders als die Andern ("Different From the Others"), in which Conrad Veidt played one of the first homosexual characters ever written for cinema.
Veidt also appeared in Magnus Hirschfeld's film Anders als die Andern (Different from the Others, 1919), one of the earliest films to sympathetically portray homosexuality, although the characters in it do not end up happily.

Max Spohr

In 1897, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee with the publisher Max Spohr, the lawyer Eduard Oberg, and the writer Franz Joseph von Bülow.
In 1897, Magnus Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee with Spohr, the lawyer Eduard Oberg, and the writer Franz Joseph von Bülow.

Christopher Isherwood

Isherwood[Christopher] IsherwoodChristopher Isherwood’s
Christopher Isherwood writes about his and W. H. Auden's visit in his book Christopher and His Kind; they were calling on Francis Turville-Petre, a friend of Isherwood's who was an active member of the Scientific Humanitarian Committee.
He began an affair with a German boy met at a cellar bar called The Cosy Corner, and he was "brought face to face with his tribe" at Magnus Hirschfeld's Institute for Sexual Science.

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs

Karl-Heinrich UlrichsUlrichsUlrich
Within the group, some of the members rejected Hirschfeld's (and Ulrichs's) view that male homosexuals are, by nature, effeminate.
Magnus Hirschfeld thoroughly referenced Ulrichs in his The Homosexuality of Men and Women (1914).

Sex reassignment surgery

gender reassignment surgerygender reassignmentsex change operation
Among the residents were Isherwood and Turville-Petre; literary critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin; actress and dancer Anita Berber; Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch; Willi Münzenberg, a member of the German Parliament and a press officer for the Communist Party of Germany; Dörchen Richter, one of the first transgender patients to receive sex reassignment surgery at the Institute, and Lili Elbe.
She started with the removal of her original sex organs, the operation supervised by Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld.

Dora Richter

Dorchen RichterDörchen Richterthe second known
Among the residents were Isherwood and Turville-Petre; literary critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin; actress and dancer Anita Berber; Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch; Willi Münzenberg, a member of the German Parliament and a press officer for the Communist Party of Germany; Dörchen Richter, one of the first transgender patients to receive sex reassignment surgery at the Institute, and Lili Elbe.
She was one of a number of transgender people in the care of sex-research pioneer Magnus Hirschfeld at Berlin's Institute for Sexual Research during the 1920s and early 1930s.

Christian von Ehrenfels

Baron Christian von Ehrenfels
One of Hirschfeld's leading critics was Austrian Baron Christian von Ehrenfels, who advocated radical changes to society and sexuality to combat the supposed "Yellow Peril", and saw Hirshfeld's theories as a challenge to his view of sexuality.
One of the founders of the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, Magnus Hirschfeld, the German sexologist and gay rights advocate, was a well known figure in the German-speaking world in the early 20th century and his theories were much debated.

Lili Elbe

Lili Elbe / Einar WegenerEinarEinar Wegener / Lili Elbe
Among the residents were Isherwood and Turville-Petre; literary critic and philosopher Walter Benjamin; actress and dancer Anita Berber; Marxist philosopher Ernst Bloch; Willi Münzenberg, a member of the German Parliament and a press officer for the Communist Party of Germany; Dörchen Richter, one of the first transgender patients to receive sex reassignment surgery at the Institute, and Lili Elbe.
The first surgery, removal of the testicles, was performed by Dr. Ludwig Levy-Lenz, under the supervision of sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld in Berlin.

Kuno von Moltke

Kuno Graf von MoltkeKuno, Graf von Moltke
During the libel trial in 1907, when General Kuno von Moltke sued the journalist Maximilian Harden, after the latter had run an article accusing Moltke of having a homosexual relationship with the politically powerful Prince Philipp von Eulenburg, who was the Kaiser's best friend, Hirschfeld testified for Harden.
Magnus Hirschfeld, a physician and sexologist who supported the legalization of homosexuality in Germany, also testified that he believed Moltke to be homosexual.

Henry Gerber

American Henry Gerber, attached to the Allied Army of Occupation following World War I, became impressed by Hirschfeld and absorbed many of the doctor's ideas.
Inspired by the work of Germany's Magnus Hirschfeld and his Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, Gerber founded the Society for Human Rights (SHR) in 1924, the nation's first known homosexual organization, and Friendship and Freedom, the first known American homosexual publication.

Philipp, Prince of Eulenburg

Philip, Prince of EulenburgPrince Philip of EulenburgPhilipp zu Eulenburg
During the libel trial in 1907, when General Kuno von Moltke sued the journalist Maximilian Harden, after the latter had run an article accusing Moltke of having a homosexual relationship with the politically powerful Prince Philipp von Eulenburg, who was the Kaiser's best friend, Hirschfeld testified for Harden.
At the trial, the sexologist and early gay rights advocate Magnus Hirschfeld testified for Harden, stating that Moltke was gay.