Mahāvyutpatti

Mahavyutpatti
The Mahāvyutpatti (Devanagari: महाव्युत्पत्ति, compound of महत् (in compounds often महा) - great, big, and व्युत्पत्ति f.wikipedia
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Bilingual dictionary

bilingual dictionariestranslation dictionarydictionary
4346). It is the earliest substantial bilingual dictionary known.
One substantial bilingual dictionary was the Mahāvyutpatti.

Ralpacan

Khri-lde-srong-brtsanKing RalpachenRalpachen
The Mahāvyutpatti is traditionally attributed to the reign of Ralpacan (c.
He also promoted the development of Tibetan literature and translations, which were greatly aided by the development of a detailed Sanskrit-Tibetan lexicon, Mahāvyutpatti, which included standard Tibetan equivalents for thousands of Sanskrit terms.

Devanagari

DevanāgarīDevanagari scriptDevnagari
The Mahāvyutpatti (Devanagari: महाव्युत्पत्ति, compound of महत् (in compounds often महा) - great, big, and व्युत्पत्ति f. - science, formation of words, etymology; Wylie: Bye-brag-tu rtogs-par byed-pa chen-po), The Great Volume of Precise Understanding or Essential Etymology, was compiled in Tibet during the late eighth to early ninth centuries CE, providing a dictionary composed of thousands of Sanskrit and Tibetan terms designed as means to provide standardised Buddhist texts in Tibetan, and is included as part of the Tibetan Tengyur (Toh.

Wylie transliteration

WyliewTransliteration
The Mahāvyutpatti (Devanagari: महाव्युत्पत्ति, compound of महत् (in compounds often महा) - great, big, and व्युत्पत्ति f. - science, formation of words, etymology; Wylie: Bye-brag-tu rtogs-par byed-pa chen-po), The Great Volume of Precise Understanding or Essential Etymology, was compiled in Tibet during the late eighth to early ninth centuries CE, providing a dictionary composed of thousands of Sanskrit and Tibetan terms designed as means to provide standardised Buddhist texts in Tibetan, and is included as part of the Tibetan Tengyur (Toh.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
The Mahāvyutpatti (Devanagari: महाव्युत्पत्ति, compound of महत् (in compounds often महा) - great, big, and व्युत्पत्ति f. - science, formation of words, etymology; Wylie: Bye-brag-tu rtogs-par byed-pa chen-po), The Great Volume of Precise Understanding or Essential Etymology, was compiled in Tibet during the late eighth to early ninth centuries CE, providing a dictionary composed of thousands of Sanskrit and Tibetan terms designed as means to provide standardised Buddhist texts in Tibetan, and is included as part of the Tibetan Tengyur (Toh.

Standard Tibetan

TibetanTibetan languageLhasa Tibetan
The Mahāvyutpatti (Devanagari: महाव्युत्पत्ति, compound of महत् (in compounds often महा) - great, big, and व्युत्पत्ति f. - science, formation of words, etymology; Wylie: Bye-brag-tu rtogs-par byed-pa chen-po), The Great Volume of Precise Understanding or Essential Etymology, was compiled in Tibet during the late eighth to early ninth centuries CE, providing a dictionary composed of thousands of Sanskrit and Tibetan terms designed as means to provide standardised Buddhist texts in Tibetan, and is included as part of the Tibetan Tengyur (Toh.

Tengyur

TanjurTangyurbsTan-'gyur
The Mahāvyutpatti (Devanagari: महाव्युत्पत्ति, compound of महत् (in compounds often महा) - great, big, and व्युत्पत्ति f. - science, formation of words, etymology; Wylie: Bye-brag-tu rtogs-par byed-pa chen-po), The Great Volume of Precise Understanding or Essential Etymology, was compiled in Tibet during the late eighth to early ninth centuries CE, providing a dictionary composed of thousands of Sanskrit and Tibetan terms designed as means to provide standardised Buddhist texts in Tibetan, and is included as part of the Tibetan Tengyur (Toh.

Sadnalegs

Tride Songtsen
So, whatever the case, it must be dated prior to 838 CE, and probably to the time of Sadnalegs (reigned c. 800–815 CE).

Pandit

punditPanditsPt.
Several Indian pandits were consulted before the translation began.

Hinayana

HīnayānaHinayana BuddhismHinayanists
The original dictionary contained 9,565 lexical entries divided into 277 chapters, and was in three volumes – one on the Hinayana, one on the Mahayana, and one of indexes.

Mahayana

Mahayana BuddhismMahāyānaMahayana Buddhist
The original dictionary contained 9,565 lexical entries divided into 277 chapters, and was in three volumes – one on the Hinayana, one on the Mahayana, and one of indexes.

Nagarjuna

NāgārjunaAcharya NagarjunaNagarjuna’s
The linguistic terms which required elucidation were accumulated and then depending on their usage in basic Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna texts, also upon their usage by the great masters of former times such as Nāgārjuna and Vasubandhu and the meaning that was to be extracted in accordance with grammatical usage, those that were difficult to understand were separated into their parts and then prescribed as a rule with the clear meaning given.

Vasubandhu

SeshinVasubadhuVasubandhu’s
The linguistic terms which required elucidation were accumulated and then depending on their usage in basic Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna texts, also upon their usage by the great masters of former times such as Nāgārjuna and Vasubandhu and the meaning that was to be extracted in accordance with grammatical usage, those that were difficult to understand were separated into their parts and then prescribed as a rule with the clear meaning given.

Tantra

TantricTantrismTantrik
The sGra-sbyor bam-po gnyis-pa then goes on to give the royal orders on how the texts were to be translated from Sanskrit to Tibetan, and also explains that, because the tantras "are to be secret by regulation" ... "henceforth with regard to dhāraṇīs, mantras and tantras, unless permission for translation is given, tantras and mantra expressions are not permitted to be collected and translated."

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
Later on Chinese was added to the Sanskrit and Tibetan.

Sándor Kőrösi Csoma

Alexander Csoma de KőrösAlexander Csoma de KorosCsoma
The first English translation was made by the pioneering Hungarian Tibetologist Sándor Kőrösi Csoma, also known as Alexander Csoma de Kőrös (1784–1842).

The Asiatic Society

Asiatic SocietyAsiatic Society of BengalJournal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal
The Asiatic Society of Bengal in Calcutta published the first part in 1834, a second part in 1910 and the third and final part in 1944.

Tibetan Empire

TufanTibetTibetan
He also promoted the development of written Tibetan and translations, which were greatly aided by the development of a detailed Sanskrit-Tibetan lexicon called the Mahavyutpatti which included standard Tibetan equivalents for thousands of Sanskrit terms.

Ranjana script

RanjanaKutilaLantsa
The Lanydza script is also found in manuscripts and printed editions of some Sanskrit-Tibetan lexicons like the Mahāvyutpatti.

The Teaching of Vimalakīrti

The Teaching of Vimalakīrti (Vimalakīrtinirdeśa)L'enseignement de Vimalakīrti ... traduit et annotéThe Teaching of Vimalakirti (Vimalakīrtinirdeśa)
Robinson wrote that the Mahāvyutpatti seems to be the chief source of the Sanskrit reconstitutions but often the reconstitutions do not do so "and particularly when the restitution is doubtful one wants to know how Lamotte arrived at it."

Dharmasvamin

Dharmasvamin had mastered Sanskrit while in Tibet, using knowledge from his uncle and the 9th century dictionary Mahāvyutpatti: his command over Sanskrit was so strong, that he was mistaken to be an Indian when he visited Bodh Gaya.

Madhyavyutpatti

These two scrolls were used along with Mahavyutpatti, which standardized the translation rules along with its pronunciation from various Sanskrit scrolls or exposition of sutra, vinaya, abhidharma, and even mantras and dharanis.