Mahavira

MahavirMahāvīraMahaveerMāhavīraLord MahaviraVardhamanaMahaveeraMahavir SwamiMahavira VardhamanaNirgrantha Jnatiputra
Mahavira, also known as Vardhamana, was the twenty-fourth tirthankara (ford-maker and propagator of dharma) in Jainism who revived and reorganized the religion.wikipedia
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Jainism

JainJainsJaina
Mahavira, also known as Vardhamana, was the twenty-fourth tirthankara (ford-maker and propagator of dharma) in Jainism who revived and reorganized the religion.
Jainism is a transtheistic religion, and Jains trace their spiritual ideas and history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, the twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 900 BCE, and the twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE.

Parshvanatha

ParshvaParshvanathParshwanath
He was the spiritual successor of 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha.
Parshvanatha was born 350 years before Mahavira.

Tirthankara

TirthankarTirthankarasTirthankars
Mahavira, also known as Vardhamana, was the twenty-fourth tirthankara (ford-maker and propagator of dharma) in Jainism who revived and reorganized the religion. He was the spiritual successor of 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha.
The 24th and last tirthankara of present half-cycle was Mahavira (599–527 BC).

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Jain tradition holds that Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BCE into a royal Kshatriya Jain family in present-day Bihar, India.
Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira.

Anekantavada

SyādvādaanekantaSyadvada
He taught the principles of Anekantavada (many-sided reality): syadvada and nayavada.
The origins of anekāntavāda can be traced back to the teachings of Mahāvīra (599–527 BCE), the 24th Jain.

Kevala Jnana

kevalakevala jñānakevali
Mahavira practiced intense meditation and severe austerities for 12 years, after which he is believed to have attained Kevala Jnana (omniscience).
According to both traditions, the last kevalin was a disciple of one of the eleven chief disciples of the last tirthankara, Mahāvīra; his name is recorded as Jambuswami.

Mahavir Jayanti

Mahaveer Janam KalyanakMahavir Janma KalyanakMahavir Janma Kalyanaka
His birth is celebrated as Mahavir Jayanti, and his nirvana (salvation) is observed by Jains as Diwali.
It celebrates the birth of Mahaveer, the twenty-fourth and last Tirthankara of present Avasarpiṇī.

Jain schools and branches

schools of JainismJain sectsschool of Jainism
He preached for 30 years and is believed by Jains to have attained moksha (salvation) in the 6th century BC, although the year varies by sect.
Knowledge of Purva was lost around 436 years after Mahavira and Anga were lost around 683 years after Mahavira.

Indrabhuti Gautama

Gautam SwamiGautamaGautamasvami
Mahavira's teachings were compiled by Indrabhuti Gautama (his chief disciple) as the Jain Agamas.
Indrabhuti Gautama or Gautam Swami was the Ganadhara (chief disciple) of Mahavira, the 24th and last Jain Tirthankara of present half cycle of time.

Digambara

DigambarMula SanghKashtha Sangh
The surviving versions of the Agamas taught by Mahavira are some of Svetambara Jainism's foundation texts, but their authenticity is disputed in Digambara Jainism.
According to Digambara texts, after liberation of the Lord Mahavira, three Anubaddha Kevalīs attained Kevalajñāna (omniscience) sequentially – Gautama Gaņadhara, Acharya Sudharma, and Jambusvami in next 62 years.

Diwali (Jainism)

DiwaliDipawaliDipawali (Jainism)
His birth is celebrated as Mahavir Jayanti, and his nirvana (salvation) is observed by Jains as Diwali.
It marks the anniversary of Nirvana (final release) or liberation of Mahavira's soul, the twenty fourth and last Jain Tirthankara of present cosmic age.

Sutra

sūtrasutrassutta
In early Buddhist suttas, he is referred to as Araha ("worthy") and Veyavi (derived from "Vedas", but meaning "wise" in this context; Mahavira did not recognize the Vedas as scripture).
In Jainism, sutras also known as suyas are canonical sermons of Mahavira contained in the Jain Agamas as well as some later (post-canonical) normative texts.

Trishala

Queen Trishala
A member of the Kashyapa gotra, Mahavira was born into the royal kshatriya family of King Siddhartha and Queen Trishala of the Ikshvaku dynasty.
Trishala, Trishala Devi, Priyakarini, or Trishala Mata (Mother Trishala) was the mother of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, and wife of the Jain monarch, Siddhartha of Kundagrama, of present-day Bihar.

Vira Nirvana Samvat

Jain calendarhis deathJain
However, the Vira Nirvana Samvat era began in 527BCE (with Mahavira's nirvana) and is a firmly-established part of Jain tradition.
It commemorates the Nirvana of Lord Mahaviraswami, the 24th Jain Tirthankara.

Siddhartha of Kundagrama

SiddharthaRaja SiddharthaSiddartha
A member of the Kashyapa gotra, Mahavira was born into the royal kshatriya family of King Siddhartha and Queen Trishala of the Ikshvaku dynasty.
Siddartha was the father of Mahavira, the 24th and last Jain Tirthankara.

Gautama Buddha

BuddhaSakyamuniShakyamuni
Historically, Mahavira was a contemporary of Gautama Buddha who preached Jainism in ancient India.
558, or c. 400 BCE), the ruler of the Magadha empire, and died during the early years of the reign of Ajatasatru, who was the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara.

Śramaṇa

SramanaShramanaSramanic
He is known as Sramana in the Kalpa Sūtra, "devoid of love and hate".
Jainism derives its philosophy from the teachings and lives of the twenty-four Tirthankaras, of whom Mahavira was the last.

Enlightenment (spiritual)

enlightenmentspiritual enlightenmentspiritual awakening
He abandoned all worldly possessions at the age of about 30 and left home in pursuit of spiritual awakening, becoming an ascetic.
Mahavira, 24th thirthankara of Jainism, is said to have practised rigorous austerities for 12 years before he attained enlightenment,

Kalpa Sūtra

KalpasutraKalpa SutraKalpa sûtra
He is known as Sramana in the Kalpa Sūtra, "devoid of love and hate".
The Kalpa Sūtra is a Jain text containing the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras, notably Parshvanatha and Mahavira.

Bihar

Bihar stateBihar, IndiaState of Bihar
Jain tradition holds that Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BCE into a royal Kshatriya Jain family in present-day Bihar, India.
Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishali around the 6th century BC.

Asceticism

asceticasceticsascetical
He abandoned all worldly possessions at the age of about 30 and left home in pursuit of spiritual awakening, becoming an ascetic.
Most of the austerities and ascetic practices can be traced back to Vardhaman Mahavira, the twenty-fourth "fordmaker" or Tirthankara who practiced 12 years of asceticism before reaching enlightenment.

Rajgir

RajagrihaRajgrihaRajagaha
He is said to have lived in Rajagriha during the rainy season of the forty-first year of his ascetic life, which is traditionally dated to 491BCE.
It was the birthplace of the 20th Jain Tirthankar Munisuvrata, and closely associated with the arihant Mahavira and Gautama Buddha.

Ajatashatru

AjatasattuAjatshatruAjātaśatru
Royal followers included King Srenika of Magadha, Kunika of Anga (popularly known as Bimbisara) and Chetaka of Videha.
He was the son of King Bimbisara and was a contemporary of both Mahavira and Gautama Buddha.

Paryushana

ParyushanParyusanaDas Lakshana
Although the Kalpa Sūtra accounts of Mahavira's birth legends are recited by Svetambara Jains during the annual Paryushana festival, the same festival is observed by the Digambaras without the recitation.
During the eight-day festival, the Śvētāmbara Murtipujakas recite the Kalpa Sūtra, which includes a recitation of the section on birth of Mahavira on the fifth day.

Satya

SatTruthanirta
Mahavira taught that observance of the vows of ahimsa (non-violence), satya (truth), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha (non-attachment) are necessary for spiritual liberation.
Satya was also preached by Mahavira.