A report on Mahavira

Statue of Mahavira meditating in the lotus position at Shri Mahavirji, Rajasthan, India.
Mahavira in Padmasana meditation posture
Ancient kingdoms and cities of India at the time of Mahavira
Mahavira in Padmasana meditation posture
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Lord Mahavira's Jal Mandir (water temple) in Pawapuri, Bihar, India
The "Charan Paduka" or foot impression of Mahavira at Jal Mandir
Folio from the Kalpa Sūtra, 15th century
The swastika and five vows
Mahavira worship in a manuscript c.1825
Mahavira iconography is distinguished by a lion stamped (or carved) beneath his feet; a Shrivatsa is on his chest.
Mahavira temple, Tirumalai
alt=See caption|Rock-cut sculpture of Mahavira in Samanar Hills, Madurai, Tamil Nadu
Rock-cut sculpture of Mahavira in Kalugumalai Jain Beds, 8th century
alt=See caption|Tallest known image of the seated Mahavira, Patnaganj
alt=See caption|Four-sided sculpture of Mahavira in Kankali Tila, Mathura
alt=Two nude statues|Tirthankaras Rishabhanatha (left) and Mahavira, 11th century (British Museum)
alt=Mahavira, seated|Temple relief of Mahavira, 14th century (Seattle Asian Art Museum)
alt=See caption|Relief of Mahavira in Thirakoil, Tamil Nadu
16-foot, 2-inch stone statue of Mahavira in Ahinsa Sthal, Mehrauli, New Delhi{{sfn|Titze|1998|p=266}}|alt=Large outdoor statue of Mahavira, with a seated worshipper for scale
alt=See caption|Mahavira statue in Cave 32 of the Ellora Caves
Mahavira inside Ambapuram cave temple, 7th century
alt=Dharmachakra temple|Dharmachakra temple in Gajpanth
alt=Shri Mahavirji|Shri Mahavirji
Jain Center of Greater Phoenix
Jain temple, Potters Bar
Mahavir Swami at Manilaxmi Tirth, Gujarat

The 24th Tirthankara (supreme preacher) of Jainism.

- Mahavira
Statue of Mahavira meditating in the lotus position at Shri Mahavirji, Rajasthan, India.

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The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).

Jainism

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Ancient Indian religion.

Ancient Indian religion.

The hand symbolizes Ahiṃsā, the wheel dharmachakra, the resolve to halt saṃsāra (transmigration).
Classification of Saṃsāri Jīvas (transmigrating souls) in Jainism
Lord Neminatha, Akota Bronzes (7th century)
Jain miniature painting of 24 tirthankaras, Jaipur, c. 1850
Jain temple painting explaining Anekantavada with Blind men and an elephant
A Jain monk in meditation, wearing the characteristic white robe and face covering
Nishidhi stone, depicting the vow of sallekhana, 14th century, Karnataka
Praying at the feet of a statue of Bahubali
Jain worship may include ritual offerings and recitals.
Celebrating Das Lakshana (Paryushana), Jain Center of America, New York City
The birth of Mahavira, from the Kalpa Sūtra (c.1375–1400 CE)
Shikharji
Idol of Suparśvanātha
A symbol to represent the Jain community was chosen in 1975 as part of the commemoration of the 2,500th anniversary of Mahavira’s nirvana.
Rishabhdev, believed to have lived over 592.704×1018 years ago, is considered the traditional founder of Jainism.
The ruins of Gori Jain temples in Nagarparkar, Pakistan, a pilgrimage site before 1947.
Ranakpur Jain Temple
Dilwara Temples
Parshvanath Temple in Khajuraho
Girnar Jain temples
Jal Mandir, Pawapuri
Lodhurva Jain temple
Palitana temples
Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka
Jain temple, Antwerp, Belgium
Brahma Jinalaya, Lakkundi
Hutheesing Jain Temple

Jainism traces its spiritual ideas and history through the succession of twenty-four Tirthankaras (supreme preachers of Dharma), with the first in the current time cycle being Rishabhadeva, whom the tradition holds to have lived millions of years ago; the twenty-third tirthankara Parshvanatha, whom historians date to 9th century BCE; and the twenty-fourth tirthankara, Mahavira around 600 BCE.

Statue of Gautama Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath; B(b) 181, Archaeological Museum Sarnath, Gupta period, ca. 475 CE.

Gautama Buddha

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Ascetic and spiritual teacher of South Asia who lived during the latter half of the first millennium BCE.

Ascetic and spiritual teacher of South Asia who lived during the latter half of the first millennium BCE.

Statue of Gautama Buddha, preaching his first sermon at Sarnath; B(b) 181, Archaeological Museum Sarnath, Gupta period, ca. 475 CE.
Seated Buddha from Tapa Shotor monastery in Hadda, Afghanistan, 2nd century CE
Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (c. 500 BCE)
Inscription "The illumination of the Blessed Sakamuni" (Brahmi script: 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁄 𑀲𑀓𑀫𑀼𑀦𑀺𑀦𑁄 𑀩𑁄𑀥𑁄, Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodho) on a relief showing the "empty" Illumination Throne of the Buddha in the early Mahabodhi Temple at Bodh Gaya. Bharhut, c. 100 BCE.
One of the earliest anthropomorphic representations of the Buddha, here surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right). Bimaran Casket, mid-1st century CE, British Museum.
Māyā miraculously giving birth to Siddhārtha. Sanskrit, palm-leaf manuscript. Nālandā, Bihar, India. Pāla period
The legendary Jataka collections depict the Buddha-to-be in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara, making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood.
Map showing Lumbini and other major Buddhist sites in India. Lumbini (present-day Nepal), is the birthplace of the Buddha, and is a holy place also for many non-Buddhists.
The Lumbini pillar contains an inscription stating that this is the Buddha's birthplace
The "Great Departure" of Siddhartha Gautama, surrounded by a halo, he is accompanied by numerous guards and devata who have come to pay homage; Gandhara, Kushan period
Prince Siddhartha shaves his hair and becomes a sramana. Borobudur, 8th century
The gilded "Emaciated Buddha statue" in Wat Suthat in Bangkok representing the stage of his asceticism
The Mahabodhi Tree at the Sri Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya
The Enlightenment Throne of the Buddha at Bodh Gaya, as recreated by Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE.
Miracle of the Buddha walking on the River Nairañjanā. The Buddha is not visible (aniconism), only represented by a path on the water, and his empty throne bottom right. Sanchi.
Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath, India, site of the first teaching of the Buddha in which he taught the Four Noble Truths to his first five disciples
The chief disciples of the Buddha, Mogallana (chief in psychic power) and Sariputta (chief in wisdom).
The remains of a section of Jetavana Monastery, just outside of ancient Savatthi, in Uttar Pradesh.
Mahāprajāpatī, the first bhikkuni and Buddha's stepmother, ordains
This East Javanese relief depicts the Buddha in his final days, and Ānanda, his chief attendant.
Mahaparinirvana, Gandhara, 3rd or 4th century CE, gray schist
Mahaparinibbana scene, from the Ajanta caves
Buddha's cremation stupa, Kushinagar (Kushinara).
Piprahwa vase with relics of the Buddha. The inscription reads: ...salilanidhane Budhasa Bhagavate... (Brahmi script: ...𑀲𑀮𑀺𑀮𑀦𑀺𑀥𑀸𑀦𑁂 𑀩𑀼𑀥𑀲 𑀪𑀕𑀯𑀢𑁂...) "Relics of the Buddha Lord".
The Bodhisattva meets with Alara Kalama, Borobudur relief.
Gandharan Buddhist birchbark scroll fragments
Buddha meets a Brahmin, at the Indian Museum, Kolkata
Schist Buddha statue with the famed Ye Dharma Hetu dhāraṇī around the head, which was used as a common summary of Dependent Origination. It states: "Of those experiences that arise from a cause, The Tathāgata has said: 'this is their cause, And this is their cessation': This is what the Great Śramaṇa teaches."
Gandharan sculpture depicting the Buddha in the full lotus seated meditation posture, 2nd-3rd century CE
Buddha Statues from Gal Vihara. The Early Buddhist texts also mention meditation practice while standing and lying down.
The Buddha on a coin of Kushan ruler Kanishka I, c. 130 CE.
Buddhist monks from Nepal. According to the earliest sources, the Buddha looked like a typical shaved man from northeast India.
Buddha depicted as the 9th avatar of god Vishnu in a traditional Hindu representation
Christ and Buddha by Paul Ranson, 1880
A Royal Couple Visits the Buddha, from railing of the Bharhut Stupa, Shunga dynasty, early 2nd century BC.
Adoration of the Diamond Throne and the Bodhi Tree, Bharhut.
Descent of the Buddha from the Trayastrimsa Heaven, Sanchi Stupa No. 1.
The Buddha's Miracle at Kapilavastu, Sanchi Stupa 1.
Bimbisara visiting the Buddha (represented as empty throne) at the Bamboo garden in Rajagriha
The great departure with riderless horse, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
The Assault of Mara, Amaravati, 2nd century CE.
Isapur Buddha, one of the earliest physical depictions of the Buddha, c. 15 CE.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Quintanilla |first1=Sonya Rhie |title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE – 100 CE |date=2007 |publisher=BRILL |isbn=9789004155374 |pages=199–206, 204 for the exact date |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA204}}</ref> Art of Mathura
The Buddha attended by Indra at Indrasala Cave, Mathura 50-100 CE.
Buddha Preaching in Tushita Heaven. Amaravati, Satavahana period, 2d century CE. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara.
Gandharan Buddha with Vajrapani-Herakles.
Kushan period Buddha Triad.
Buddha statue from Sanchi.
Birth of the Buddha, Kushan dynasty, late 2nd to early 3rd century CE.
The Infant Buddha Taking A Bath, Gandhara 2nd century CE.
6th century Gandharan Buddha.
Buddha at Cave No. 6, Ajanta Caves.
Standing Buddha, c. 5th Century CE.
Sarnath standing Buddha, 5th century CE.
Seated Buddha, Gupta period.
Seated Buddha at Gal Vihara, Sri Lanka.
Chinese Stele with Sakyamuni and Bodhisattvas, Wei period, 536 CE.
The Shakyamuni Daibutsu Bronze, c. 609, Nara, Japan.
Amaravati style Buddha of Srivijaya period, Palembang, Indonesia, 7th century.
Korean Seokguram Cave Buddha, c. 774 CE.
Seated Buddha Vairocana flanked by Avalokiteshvara and Vajrapani of Mendut temple, Central Java, Indonesia, early 9th century.
Buddha in the exposed stupa of Borobudur mandala, Central Java, Indonesia, c. 825.
Vairocana Buddha of Srivijaya style, Southern Thailand, 9th century.
Seated Buddha, Japan, Heian period, 9th-10th century.
Attack of Mara, 10th century, Dunhuang.
Cambodian Buddha with Mucalinda Nāga, c. 1100 CE, Banteay Chhmar, Cambodia
15th century Sukhothai Buddha.
15th century Sukhothai Walking Buddha.
Sakyamuni, Lao Tzu, and Confucius, c. from 1368 until 1644.
Chinese depiction of Shakyamuni, 1600.
Shakyamuni Buddha with Avadana Legend Scenes, Tibetan, 19th century
Golden Thai Buddha statue, Bodh Gaya.
Gautama statue, Shanyuan Temple, Liaoning Province, China.
Burmese style Buddha, Shwedagon pagoda, Yangon.
Large Gautama Buddha statue in Buddha Park of Ravangla.

558, or c. 400 BCE), the ruler of the Magadha empire, and died during the early years of the reign of Ajatashatru, who was the successor of Bimbisara, thus making him a younger contemporary of Mahavira, the Jain tirthankara.

Image of Tirthankara Parshvanatha (Victoria and Albert Museum, 6th–7th century)

Parshvanatha

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The 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras of Jainism.

The 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras of Jainism.

Image of Tirthankara Parshvanatha (Victoria and Albert Museum, 6th–7th century)
Parshvanatha was born in Varanasi, a historic city on the Ganges.
Parshvanatha and his yaksha, Dharanendra, in the 8th-century Tamil Nadu Kalugumalai Jain Beds
8th-century stone relief of Parshvanatha at Thirakoil
Parshvanatha with Padmavati and Dharnendra in a 16th-century manuscript
Parshvanatha iconography is identified by a sesha hood above his head and a cobra stamped (or carved) beneath his feet. At the center of his chest is a shrivatsa, which identifies Jain statues.
Jal Mandir, Shikharji, Parasnath
Parsvanatha ayagapata - Jina Parsvanatha, Mathura art, {{circa|15 CE}}.{{sfn|Quintanilla|2007|p=201}}{{sfn|Quintanilla|2007|p=406}}
alt=Stone relief|Uttar Pradesh, 2nd century (Museum of Oriental Art)
Parshvanath relief of Kahaum pillar, 5th century
alt=Lotus position|5th century (Satna, Madhya Pradesh)
alt=Lotus position|6th century, Uttar Pradesh
alt=Lotus position|7th-century Akota Bronze (Honolulu Museum of Art)
6th-7th century bronze statue in Asian Civilisations Museum
9th century - Cleveland Museum of Art
alt=Lotus position|10th-century copper, inlaid with silver and gemstones (LACMA)
alt=Lotus position|11th century, Maharaja Chhatrasal Museum
alt=Lotus position|Karnataka, 12th century (Art Institute of Chicago)
alt=Lotus position|1813 engraving
{{convert|61|ft}} colossal at Navagraha Jain Temple
alt=Outdoor standing statue|Vahelna statue
alt=Standing statue in niche|Parshvanatha basadi, Shravanabelgola
alt=Standing statue|Parshvanatha temple in Halebidu
Parshvanatha temple, Khajuraho, UNESCO World Heritage Site
Pattadakal Jain Temple, UNESCO World Heritage Site
Parshavanth temple, Jaisalmer Fort, UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of Hill Forts of Rajasthan
Parshvanatha basadi at Halebidu: tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage Site
Calcutta Jain Temple
Antwerp Jain Temple, Belgium
Shri Nakodaji
Samovsaran Mandir, Palitana
Lodhurva Jain temple
Lal Mandir
Kere Basadi
alt=Godiji Parshwanath (Gori) Temple at Tharparkar - tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage|Godiji (Gori) Temple in Tharparkar - tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage
Parshwanath at Jirawala, Rajasthan

The Jain sources place him between the 9th and 8th centuries BC whereas historians consider that he lived in the 8th or 7th century BC. Parshvanatha was born 273 years before Mahavira.

Indian Cultural Influence (Greater India)

History of India

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According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago.

According to consensus in modern genetics, anatomically modern humans first arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa between 73,000 and 55,000 years ago.

Indian Cultural Influence (Greater India)
Dholavira, a city of Indus Valley Civilisation, with stepwell steps to reach the water level in artificially constructed reservoirs.
Archaeological remains of washroom drainage system at Lothal.
Sinauli "chariot", photograph of the Archaeological Survey of India.
An early 19th century manuscript in the Devanagari script of the Rigveda, originally transmitted orally with fidelity
Late Vedic era map showing the boundaries of Āryāvarta with Janapadas in northern India, beginning of Iron Age kingdoms in India – Kuru, Panchala, Kosala, Videha.
City of Kushinagar in the 5th century BCE according to a 1st-century BCE frieze in Sanchi Stupa 1 Southern Gate.
Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra.
The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful and vast kingdoms and republics of the era, located mainly across the Indo-Gangetic plains.
The Mauryan carved door of Lomas Rishi, one of the Barabar Caves, c. 250 BCE.
Silk Road and Spice trade, ancient trade routes that linked India with the Old World; carried goods and ideas between the ancient civilisations of the Old World and India. The land routes are red, and the water routes are blue.
Copper Plate Seal of Kamarupa Kings at Madan Kamdev ruins.
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Kadamba shikara (tower) with Kalasa (pinnacle) on top, Doddagaddavalli.
Coin of Emperor Harsha, c. 606–647 CE.
Rohtasgarh Fort
Excavated ruins of Nalanda, a centre of Buddhist learning from 450 to 1193 CE.
Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola, c. 1030 CE.
The Delhi Sultanate reached its zenith under the Turko-Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
The Dasam Granth (above) was composed by Sikh Guru Gobind Singh.
18th century political formation in India.
The route followed in Vasco da Gama's first voyage (1497–1499).
Literacy in India grew very slowly until independence in 1947. An acceleration in the rate of literacy growth occurred in the 1991–2001 period.
Mature Harappan Period, c. 2600 - 1900 BCE
Mehrgarh site, in Beluchistan, Pakistan
Mohenjo-daro, one of the largest Indus cities. View of the site's Great Bath, showing the surrounding urban layout.
Three stamp seals and their impressions bearing Indus script characters alongside animals: "unicorn" (left), bull (center), and elephant (right); Guimet Museum

Around the same time, Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism) propagated a theology that was to later become Jainism.

Idol of Lord Rishabhdeva at Palitana Tirth, Gujarat

Rishabhanatha

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First Tīrthaṅkara (Supreme preacher) of Jainism and establisher of Ikshvaku dynasty.

First Tīrthaṅkara (Supreme preacher) of Jainism and establisher of Ikshvaku dynasty.

Idol of Lord Rishabhdeva at Palitana Tirth, Gujarat
Rishabha with mother Marudevi at Palitana
Janma kalyāṇaka from the Kalpa Sutra, c. 14th–15th Century CE
Ruins of ancient Jain settlement from 2nd century BCE in Kankali Tila, Mathura depicting the scene of Nilanjana's Dance from life of Lord Rishabhdeva.
Statuary representing meditation by Rishabhanatha in Kayotsarga posture. (Photo:Ajmer Jain temple)
Rishabhanatha's moving over lotus after attaining omniscience
Mount Kailash or Ashtapad, the Nirvana place of Rishabhdeva.
Svetambara iconography of Rishabhanatha, in which he is identified by the bull stamped or carved below his feet. On the center of his chest is a shrivatsa.
Carving at Ambika Gumpha, Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, 2nd century BCE
The famous 15 ft "Bade Baba" idol at Bade Baba temple, Kundalpur
Palitana temples
Statue of Ahimsa, Maharashtra, {{convert|108|feet}}
Bawangaja, Madhya Pradesh, {{convert|84|feet}}
The {{convert|58.4|feet}} colossal at Gopachal Hill
The {{convert|45|feet}} tall rock cut idol at Chanderi
{{convert|31|feet}} statue made up of Ashtadhatu, Trilok Teerth Dham
The {{convert|25|feet}} idol at Dadabari, Kota
Ranakpur Jain temple, Ranakpur, Rajasthan
Adinatha temple, Khajuraho, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Vimal Vasahi, Dilwara temples
Panchakuta Basadi

Along with Mahavira, Parshvanath, Neminath, and Shantinath; Rishabhanath is one of the five Tirthankaras that attract the most devotional worship among the Jains.

Stela depicting Śhrut Jnāna, "the knowledge which is heard" (directly from the omniscient fordmakers)

Jain literature

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Jain literature refers to the literature of the Jain religion.

Jain literature refers to the literature of the Jain religion.

Stela depicting Śhrut Jnāna, "the knowledge which is heard" (directly from the omniscient fordmakers)
Statues depicting Bhadrabahu (the last leader of a unified Jain community) and the mauryan emperor Chandragupta (who became a Jain monk late in life).
[Top illustration] Mahavira attains kevala jñāna (complete knowledge); [Bottom] a samosarana (divine preaching hall). Folio 60 from Kalpasutra series, loose leaf manuscript, Patan, Gujarat. c. 1472.
The Suryaprajnaptisūtra, a 4th or 3rd century BCE Śvētāmbara astronomical and mathematical text. The top illustration depicts Mahavira, while the bottom one illustrates his great disciple Gautama.
Āchārya Pushpadanta, depicted writing down the Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama
Āchārya Kundakunda, one of the most important Digambara philosophers
The Tattvārthsūtra is regarded as the most authoritative book on Jainism, and the only text authoritative in both the Svetambara and Digambara sects
Bust of Hemachandra at Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University
Mangulam inscription dated 2nd century BCE

Initially, the canonical scriptures were transmitted through an oral tradition and consisted of teachings of historical Jain leaders like Mahavira codified into various collections.

Kevala jnana

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Roughly translated as complete understanding or supreme wisdom.

Roughly translated as complete understanding or supreme wisdom.

According to both traditions, the last kevalin was a disciple of one of the eleven chief disciples of the last tirthankara, Mahāvīra; his name is recorded as Jambuswami.

Kalpa Sūtra miniature of Queen Trishala (bottom) and her auspicious dreams, c. 1472.

Trishala

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Kalpa Sūtra miniature of Queen Trishala (bottom) and her auspicious dreams, c. 1472.
Kalpa Sūtra miniature of Queen Trishala (bottom) and her auspicious dreams, c. 1472.
Detail of a leaf with, The Birth of Mahavira (the 24th Jain Tirthankara), from the Kalpa Sutra, c. 1375–1400.
Aspicious dreams seen by the Tirthankara mother.

Trishala, also known as Videhadatta, Priyakarini, or Trishala Mata (Mother Trishala), was the mother of Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism, and wife of the Jain monarch, Siddhartha of Kundagrama, of present-day Bihar.

Jarasandha's Akhara

Rajgir

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Historic town in the district of Nalanda in Bihar, India.

Historic town in the district of Nalanda in Bihar, India.

Jarasandha's Akhara
Gautama Buddha spent a substantial amount of time here.
The historic locality is surrounded by the Rajgir hills and remains of cyclopean walls.
Boar's Cave
Closeup of Buddha at Vishwa Shanti Stupa
Rope way from the 1960s
One of the caves. (Caddy 1895)

It was the birthplace of the 20th Jain Tirthankar Munisuvrata, and is closely associated with the Mahavira and Gautama Buddha.

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Tirthankara

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Saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).

Saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).

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Tirthankara images at Siddhachal Caves inside Gwalior Fort.
Auspicious dreams seen by a tirthankara's mother during pregnancy
Samavasarana of Tirthankara Rishabha (Ajmer Jain temple)
Tirthankars of present, previous and next cosmic ages (72 in total)
Jain chaumukha sculpture at LACMA, 6th century
Image of Mahavira at Shri Mahavirji

The 24th and last tirthankara of the present half-cycle was Mahavira Swami Ji (599 BC–527 BC).