Mahmud II

Mahmut IISultan Mahmud IIMahmudSultan Mahmut IIbelowMahmud the SecondOttoman sultanSultanSultan II.MahmutSultan Mahmoud
Mahmud II ( Mahmud-u s̠ānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî; İkinci Mahmut; 20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.wikipedia
507 Related Articles

Abdülaziz

Sultan AbdülazizAbdülaziz IAbdulaziz
His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat ("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz.
He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdulmejid I in 1861.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
The reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would eventually lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic.
In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens.

Tanzimat

Tanzimat reformsTanzimâtreforms
His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat ("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz. In 1839, just prior to his death, he began preparations for the Tanzimat reform era which included introducing a Council of Ministers or the Meclis-i Vukela.
The reforms emerged from the minds of reformist sultans like Mahmud II, his son Abdulmejid I and prominent, often European-educated bureaucrats, who recognised that the old religious and military institutions no longer met the needs of the empire.

Auspicious Incident

The Auspicious IncidentabolitionAuspicious Event
Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey", Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire.
The Auspicious Incident (or Event ) (Ottoman Turkish: (in Istanbul) Vaka-i Hayriye "Fortunate Event"; (in the Balkans) Vaka-i Şerriyye, "Unfortunate Incident") was the forced disbandment of the centuries-old Janissary corps by Sultan Mahmud II on 15 June 1826.

Nakşidil Sultan

NakşidilNakşîdil Sultan
His mother was Nakşidil Valide Sultan.
undefined 1768 – 22 August 1817; meaning "Embroidered on the Heart" in Persian) was the consort of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid I and Valide Sultan to her son Mahmud II.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
Mahmud II ( Mahmud-u s̠ānī, محمود عدلى Mahmud-u Âdlî; İkinci Mahmut; 20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.
Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life, but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud II, who eliminated the Janissary corps in 1826.

Mustafa IV

MustafaSultan Mustafa IV
In 1808, Mahmud II's predecessor, and half-brother, Mustafa IV ordered his execution along with his cousin, the deposed Sultan Selim III, in order to defuse the rebellion.
Both he and his brother, Mahmud II, were the last remaining male members of the house of Osman I after their cousin, the reformist Sultan Selim III (1789–1807).

Husein Gradaščević

Husein-kapetan GradaščevićDragon of BosniaGradaščević
He sent his Grand Vizier to execute the Bosniak hero Husein Gradaščević and dissolve the Bosnia Eyalet.
Sparked by Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II's reforms that abolished the Janissaries and weakened the privileges of the nobility, and the autonomy and territory granted to the Principality of Serbia, much of the Bosnian nobility united and revolted.

Abdulmejid I

Abdülmecid IAbdülmecidAbd-ul-Mejid I
His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat ("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz.
Abdülmecid I ( Abdülmecîd-i evvel; 23/25 April 1823 – 25 June 1861) or Tanzimatçı Sultan Abdülmecid (Sultan Abdülmecid the Reorganizer) due to the Tanzimat reforms he conducted, he is also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839.

Council of Ministers (Ottoman Empire)

Council of MinisterscabinetOttoman cabinet
In 1839, just prior to his death, he began preparations for the Tanzimat reform era which included introducing a Council of Ministers or the Meclis-i Vukela.
The Council of Ministers ( or Heyet-i Vükela) was a cabinet created during the Tanzimat period in the Ottoman Empire by Sultan Mahmud II in what was the Empire's first step towards European modernization.

Alemdar Mustafa Pasha

Alemdar MustafaMustafa BayrakdarAlemdar Mustafa Pasa
The leader of this rebellion, Alemdar Mustafa Pasha, later became Mahmud II's vizier.
After he arrived, Mustafa IV ordered Selim III and Mahmud II killed, succeeding in the former case.

Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali PashaMohammed Ali
During the early years of Mahmud II's reign, his governor of Egypt Mehmet Ali Paşa successfully waged the Ottoman-Saudi War and reconquered the holy cities of Medina (1812) and Mecca (1813) from the First Saudi State.
Though Muhammad Ali's chief aim was to establish a European-style military, and carve out a personal empire, he waged war initially on behalf of the Ottoman Sultan, Mahmud II, in Arabia and Greece, although he later came into open conflict with the Ottoman Empire.

Janissaries

JanissaryJannisaryJannisaries
Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey", Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire.
The corps was abolished by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826 in the Auspicious Incident in which 6,000 or more were executed.

Valide sultan

List of Valide SultansValideValide Sultan (Queen Mother)
His mother was Nakşidil Valide Sultan.

Selim III

Sultan Selim IIISultanSelim
In 1808, Mahmud II's predecessor, and half-brother, Mustafa IV ordered his execution along with his cousin, the deposed Sultan Selim III, in order to defuse the rebellion.
Upon his arrival in the capital, Bairakdar's only resource was to wreak his vengeance on Mustafa IV and to place on the throne Mahmud II (1808–1839), the sole surviving member of the house of Osman.

Turkish archery

Turkish bowTurkishhit the enemy with arrows
He ordered archery master Mustafa Kani to write a book about the history, construction, and use of Turkish bows, from which comes most of what is now known of Turkish archery.
The sport of archery declined gradually until the reign of Mahmud II who made great efforts to revive it.

Greek War of Independence

Greek RevolutionGreek independenceGreek Revolution of 1821
His reign also marked the first breakaway from the Ottoman Empire, with Greece gaining its independence following a revolution that started in 1821.
Despite the Turkish reaction the rebellion persisted, and thus Sultan Mahmud II (r.

Ottoman coups of 1807–08

Janissary revoltbrought Mustafa IV to powerCoup of 1807
The vizier took the initiative in resuming reforms that had been terminated by the conservative coup of 1807 that had brought Mustafa IV to power.
The imprisoned Selim was murdered on Mustafa's command, but Selim's cousin and heir, Mahmud, escaped from his would-be assassins.

Ali Pasha of Ioannina

Ali PashaAli Pasha TepelenaAli Pasha of Yanina
He ordered the execution of the renowned Ali Pasha of Tepelena.
Ali Pasha was very cautious and displeased by the emergence of the new Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II in the year 1808.

Kamerfer Kadın

undefined 1787- 24 November 1823) was the second wife of Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II.

Nevfidan Kadın

undefined 1790- 11 November 1855) was the third wife of Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II she was given the title of Bas Kadin

Bezmiâlem Sultan

BezmiâlemBezm-i Alem Valide SultanBezmialem
undefined 1807 – 2 May 1853), meaning "Ornament of the Universe" in Persian, was the ninth wife of Sultan Mahmud II, and Valide Sultan to their son, Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

Dilseza Kadın

undefined 1790- 28 September 1816) was the fourth wife of Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II.

Aşubcan Kadın

undefined 1795 – 10 June 1870) was the sixth wife of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire.