Mahmud of Ghazni

MahmudSultan Mahmud GhaznaviMahmud of GhaznavidMahmud GhazniMahmud GhaznaviMahmud of GhaznaSultan MahmudConqueror Mehmood GhaznaviMahmood GhaznaviMahmood Ghaznvi
Mahmud of Ghazni (2 November 971 – 30 April 1030) was the first independent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty, ruling from 999 to 1030.wikipedia
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Sultan

SultanateSultansSulṭān
He was the first ruler to hold the title Sultan ("authority"), signifying the extent of his power while at the same time preserving an ideological link to the suzerainty of the Abbasid Caliphate.

Sabuktigin

Sultan SebukteginSebuktiginSebük Tigin
His father, Sabuktigin, was a Turkic slave commander (ghilman) who laid foundations to the Ghaznavid dynasty in Ghazni in 977, which he ruled as a subordinate of the Samanids, who ruled Khorasan and Transoxiana.
Although the latter and Sabuktigin still recognized Samanid authority, and it was not until the reign of Sabuktigin's son Mahmud that the rulers of Ghazni became independent.

Ahmad Maymandi

Not much about Mahmud's early life is known, he was a school-fellow of Ahmad Maymandi, a Persian native of Zabulistan and foster brother of his.
Abuʾl-Ḥasan al-Qāsim Aḥmad ibn Ḥasan Maymandī (died 31 December 1032), better known as Ahmad Maymandi (احمد میمندی; also spelled Maimandi), and also known by his honorific title of Shams al-Kufat (شمس الکفاة; "sun of the capable ones"), was a Persian vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni and the latter's son Mas'ud I of Ghazni.

Afghanistan

AfghanIslamic Republic of AfghanistanAfghans
Mahmud was born in the town of Ghazni in the region of Zabulistan (now present-day Afghanistan) on 2 November 971.
By the 11th century, Mahmud of Ghazni defeated the remaining Hindu rulers and effectively Islamized the wider region, with the exception of Kafiristan.

Gazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu

Dawood Ghazi of SatrikhGazi Salar SahuGhazi Saiyed Salar Dawood
His sister, Sitr-e-Mu'alla, was married to Dawood bin Ataullah Alavi, also known as Ghazi Salar Sahu, whose son was Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud.
Ghazi Saiyyed Salar Sahu or Ghazi Saiyed Salar Dawood or Sahu Bin Ataullah Alavi or Salar Sahu was commander in the army of Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi who came to the South Asia in the early 11th century.

Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud

Salar MasudGhazi Saiyed Salar MasudGhazi Salar Masud
His sister, Sitr-e-Mu'alla, was married to Dawood bin Ataullah Alavi, also known as Ghazi Salar Sahu, whose son was Ghazi Saiyyad Salar Masud.
According to this biography, he was a nephew of the Ghaznavid invader Mahmud, and accompanied his uncle in the conquest of India during early 11th century.

Al-Biruni

Abū Rayhān al-BīrūnīAbu Rayhan BiruniAbū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
The capital appealed to many prominent figures, such as al-Biruni and Ferdowsi.
In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey.

Persianate society

PersianatePersianate societiesPersianate states
Highly Persianized, Mahmud continued the bureaucratic, political, and cultural customs of his predecessors, the Samanids, which proved to establish the groundwork for a Persianate state in northern India.
The crowning literary achievement in the early New Persian language was the Shahnameh (Book of Kings), presented by its author Ferdowsi to the court of Mahmud of Ghazni (998–1030).

Malik Ayaz

AyazHayatsar RoadTomb of Malik Ayaz
Mahmud's companion was a Georgian slave Malik Ayaz, and his love for him inspired poems and stories.
Malik Ayaz (Persian: ملک ایاز), son of Aymāq Abu'n-Najm, was a slave from Georgia who rose to the rank of officer and general in the army of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (also known as Mahmud Ghaznavi).

Battle of Peshawar (1001)

Battle of Peshawarattacked GhazniPeshawar
On 28November 1001, his army fought and defeated the army of Raja Jayapala of the Kabul Shahis at the battle of Peshawar.
Battle of Peshawar, was fought on 27 November 1001 between the Ghaznavid army of Sultan Mahmud bin Sebuktigin (Mahmud of Ghazni) and the Hindu Shahi army of Jayapala, near Peshawar.

Ghazni

GhaznaGhazni, AfghanistanGhuznee
Mahmud was born in the town of Ghazni in the region of Zabulistan (now present-day Afghanistan) on 2 November 971. His capital of Ghazni evolved into a significant cultural, commercial, and intellectual center in the Islamic world, almost rivaling the important city of Baghdad.
This was the result of the cultural policy of the Sultan Mahmud (reigned 998–1030), who assembled a circle of scholars, philosophers, and poets around his throne in support of his claim to royal status in Iran.

Indus River

IndusIndus ValleySindhu
During his rule, he invaded and plundered parts of the Indian subcontinent (east of the Indus River) seventeen times.
Over several centuries Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur crossed the river to invade the inner regions of the Punjab and points farther south and east

Abu'l-Hasan Isfaraini

He then appointed Abu'l-Hasan Isfaraini as his vizier, and then set out west from Ghazni to take the Kandahar region followed by Bost (Lashkar Gah), where he turned it into a militarised city.
Abu'l-Hasan Ali ibn Fadl ibn Ahmad Isfaraini (, died 1013/4), better simply known as Abu'l-Hasan Isfaraini, was a Persian vizier of the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni (r.

Makran

Makran CoastMekranMakrān
At the time of his death, his kingdom had been transformed into an extensive military empire, which extended from northwestern Iran proper to the Punjab in the Indian subcontinent, Khwarazm in Transoxiana, and Makran.
Baloch raiders plundered Mahmud of Ghazni's ambassador between Tabbas and Khabis.

Kandahar Province

KandaharKandahar regionKandahār
He then appointed Abu'l-Hasan Isfaraini as his vizier, and then set out west from Ghazni to take the Kandahar region followed by Bost (Lashkar Gah), where he turned it into a militarised city.
Mahmud of Ghazni made the area part of the Ghaznavids in the 10th century, who were replaced by the Ghurids.

Lahore

Lahore, PakistanLahore, PunjabLahore Subah
He assembled a powerful confederacy that suffered defeat as his elephant turned back from the battle at a crucial moment, turning the tide into Mahmud's favor once more at Lahore in 1008 and bringing Mahmud into control of the Shahi dominions of Udbandpura.
Few other references to Lahore remain from before its capture by the Ghaznavid Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century.

Kara-Khanid Khanate

KarakhanidsKarakhanidKara-Khanid
During this period, the Samanid Empire became highly unstable, with shifting internal political tides as various factions vied for control, the chief among them being Abu'l-Qasim Simjuri, Fa'iq, AbuAli, the General Bekhtuzin as well as the neighbouring Buyid dynasty and Kara-Khanid Khanate.
The brothers Ahmad and Nasr conducted different policies towards the Ghaznavids in the south – while Ahmad tried to form alliance with Mahmud of Ghazna, Nasr attempted to expand unsuccessfully into the territory of the Ghaznavids.

Multan

MooltanMultan, PakistanMultan City
Mahmud's first campaign to the south was against an Ismaili state first established at Multan in 965 by a da'i from the Fatimid Caliphate in a bid to curry political favor and recognition with the Abbasid Caliphate; he also engaged elsewhere with the Fatimids.
Mahmud of Ghazni in 1005 led an expedition against Multan's Qarmatian ruler Abdul Fateh Daud.

Ismail of Ghazni

IsmailEsma'ilIsmail of Ghaznavi
Sabuktigin died in 997, and was succeeded by his son Ismail as the ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty.
Ismail was designated his successor by Sabuktigin on his death-bed, while Mahmud, the older brother who was involved in the Samanid civil war, was stationed in Nishapur.

Battle of Ghazni (998)

Battle of Ghazni1st Battle of GhazniAfghan War of Succession
Mahmud shortly revolted, and with the help of his other brother, Abu'l-Muzaffar, the governor of Bust, he defeated Ismail the following year at the battle of Ghazni and gained control over the Ghaznavid kingdom.
The Battle of Ghazni was fought in 998 between the rival Ghaznavid forces of Amir Ismail and the rebel forces of his older brother Mahmud of Ghazni.

Bathinda

BhatindaBhatinda Junction Notable People
The following year Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and crushed Sukhapala, ruler of Bathinda (who had become ruler by rebelling against the Shahi kingdom).
In 1004, Mahmud of Ghazni besieged the local fort, which was located on the route from the northwest into the rich Ganges valley.

Ferdowsi

FirdausiFerdousiFirdowsi
The capital appealed to many prominent figures, such as al-Biruni and Ferdowsi.
According to legend, Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni offered Ferdowsi a gold piece for every couplet of the Shahnameh he wrote.

Bhima I

BhimaBhimdev
Mahmud attacked Somnath in 1025, and its ruler Bhima I fled.
The early years of his reign saw an invasion from the Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud, who sacked the Somnath temple.

Gwalior

GwaliarGwalior CityLashkar
Mahmud besieged Gwalior, in 1023, where he was given tribute.
In 1021, Gwalior was attacked by forces led by Mahmud Ghazni but they were repelled.

Peshawar

Peshawar, PakistanPeshwarPurushapura
Mahmud defeated, captured, and later released the Shahi ruler Jayapala, who had moved his capital to Peshawar (modern Pakistan).
On 28 November 1001, Sabuktigin's son Mahmud Ghazni decisively defeated the army of Raja Jayapala, son of Anandpal, at the Battle of Peshawar, and established rule of the Ghaznavid Empire in the Peshawar region.