Mainland China

mainlandMainland ChineseChinaChinese mainlandthe mainlandChina MainlandChineseMainland AreaChina (mainland)Chinese mainland area
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).wikipedia
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Hainan

Hainan IslandHainan ProvinceHainan, China
It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland (continental landmass).
It is the smallest and southernmost province of Mainland China, consisting of various islands in the South Sea.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The subsequent Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949 when the Communist Party of China led by Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China on mainland China while the Kuomintang-led nationalist government retreated to the island of Taiwan where it governed until 1996 when Taiwan transitioned to democracy.

Special administrative regions of China

Special Administrative Regionspecial administrative regionsSpecial Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland (continental landmass).
The legal basis for the establishment of SARs, unlike the administrative divisions of Mainland China, is provided for by Article 31, rather than Article 30, of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China of 1982.

Hong Kong

Hong Kong Special Administrative RegionHong Kong, ChinaHongkong
It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland (continental landmass).
As a special administrative region, Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems".

Macau

MacaoMacau, ChinaMacanese
It includes Hainan island and strictly speaking, politically, does not include the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau, even though both are partially on the geographic mainland (continental landmass).
As a special administrative region, Macau maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China.

Communist Party of China

Communist PartyCPCCommunist
By 1949, the Communist Party of China's (CPC) People's Liberation Army had largely defeated the Kuomintang (KMT)'s National Revolutionary Army in the Chinese Civil War on the mainland.
The CPC is the sole governing party within mainland China, permitting only eight other, subordinated parties to co-exist, those making up the United Front.

Kuomintang

KMTNationalistnationalists
By 1949, the Communist Party of China's (CPC) People's Liberation Army had largely defeated the Kuomintang (KMT)'s National Revolutionary Army in the Chinese Civil War on the mainland. Traditionally, the Republic of China on Taiwan (led by the Kuomintang/Nationalists (KMT/GMD)) has referred to the territories under the control of the Chinese Communist Party with several different names, e.g. "(territory controlled by the) Communist bandits", "occupied/unfree area (of China)" (as opposed to the "free area of the Republic of China"), "Communist China" (as opposed to either "Nationalist China" or "Democratic China"), "Red China" (as opposed to "Blue China"), and "mainland China (area)".
Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of mainland China in 1928, ending the chaos of the Warlord Era.

China and the United Nations

ChinaChina in the United NationsChina's seat
This has resulted in a situation in which two co-existing governments compete for international legitimacy and recognition as the "government of China".
Nearly all of the Chinese mainland was soon under its control and the ROC retreated to the island refuge of Taiwan.

Two Chinas

conflictingChinaChina split into two
This has resulted in a situation in which two co-existing governments compete for international legitimacy and recognition as the "government of China".
As the Chinese Civil War ended in 1949, the Chinese communist People's Republic of China (PRC), led by Chairman Mao Zedong, took control of Mainland China.

Republic of China (1912–1949)

Republic of ChinaChinaChinese
This forced the Kuomintang to relocate the Government and institutions of the Republic of China to the relative safety of Taiwan, an island which was placed under the control of the Republic of China after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945.
The communist takeover of mainland China in 1949, after the Chinese Civil War, left the ruling Kuomintang with control over only Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands.

Handover of Hong Kong

transfer of sovereignty over Hong Konghandovertransfer of sovereignty
Since the return of Hong Kong and Macau to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 and 1999, respectively, the two territories have retained their legal, political, and economic systems.
Hong Kong became a special administrative region and continues to maintain governing and economic systems separate from those of mainland China.

Free area of the Republic of China

Taiwan AreaTaiwanFree Area
"Mainland area" is the opposing term to "free area of the Republic of China" used in the ROC Constitution. Traditionally, the Republic of China on Taiwan (led by the Kuomintang/Nationalists (KMT/GMD)) has referred to the territories under the control of the Chinese Communist Party with several different names, e.g. "(territory controlled by the) Communist bandits", "occupied/unfree area (of China)" (as opposed to the "free area of the Republic of China"), "Communist China" (as opposed to either "Nationalist China" or "Democratic China"), "Red China" (as opposed to "Blue China"), and "mainland China (area)".
The term is opposed to "Mainland Area", which is practically viewed as being synonymous to mainland China.

One country, two systems

One Country Two SystemsOne country-two systemsindependence of legal system
Therefore, "mainland China" generally continues to exclude these territories, because of the "One country, two systems" policy adopted by the PRC central government towards the regions.
He suggested that there would be only one China, but that these regions could retain their own economic and administrative systems, while the rest of the PRC (or "Mainland China") uses the socialism with Chinese characteristics system.

Chinese Civil War

civil warCommunist RevolutionChina
By 1949, the Communist Party of China's (CPC) People's Liberation Army had largely defeated the Kuomintang (KMT)'s National Revolutionary Army in the Chinese Civil War on the mainland.
This stage of war is referred to in mainland China and Communist historiography as the "War of Liberation".

Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai ShekJiang JieshiChiang Kaishek
During this time the ROC referred to the PRC government as "Communist Bandits" while the PRC referred to the ROC as "Chiang Bandits" .
However, the name was often rejected by the Chinese Communists, and is not as well known in mainland China.

Fujian

Fujian ProvinceFukienHokkien
In some coastal provinces such as Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangsu, people often call the area of non-coastal provinces in of mainland China as "Inland" .
Fujian (alternately romanized as Fukien) is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

Guangdong

Guangdong ProvinceCantonKwangtung
In some coastal provinces such as Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangsu, people often call the area of non-coastal provinces in of mainland China as "Inland" .
The province of Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population.

Taiwan

Republic of ChinaFormosaRepublic of China (Taiwan)
This forced the Kuomintang to relocate the Government and institutions of the Republic of China to the relative safety of Taiwan, an island which was placed under the control of the Republic of China after the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945.
The Kuomintang continued to claim sovereignty over all of "China", which it defined to include mainland China, Taiwan, Outer Mongolia and other areas.

Project National Glory

retake the mainlandCounterattack the mainland!invasion of the mainland
Schoolchildren were taught slogans like "Counterattack the mainland!" and "Save our mainland compatriots from the deepest water and hottest fire!"
Project National Glory or Project Guoguang was a military attempt by the Republic of China (ROC) Armed Forces in Taiwan to try to recapture Mainland China held by the People's Liberation Army in the newly established People's Republic of China (PRC).

Jiangsu

Jiangsu ProvinceKiangsuJiang Su
In some coastal provinces such as Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangsu, people often call the area of non-coastal provinces in of mainland China as "Inland" .
Today south Jiangsu remains one of the richest parts of China, and Shanghai, arguably the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan of mainland China cities, is a direct extension of south Jiangsu culture.

Taiwan independence movement

Taiwan independenceTaiwanese independenceindependence
However, the Pan-Green Coalition in Taiwan, led by the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) [the DPP and other aligned parties usually support Taiwanese independence to a certain degree], tend to be opposed to suggestions that Taiwan is part of China, regardless of the subtlety of said suggestions.
Taiwanese independence is opposed by pro-Chinese unification political parties in Taiwan as well as by the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC), a state that administers the territory of mainland China, which is officially claimed as part of the territory of the ROC (in addition to the territory of Taiwan, which is actually administered by the ROC).

Transfer of sovereignty over Macau

transfer of sovereignty of Macautransfer of sovereigntyhandover of Macau
Since the return of Hong Kong and Macau to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 and 1999, respectively, the two territories have retained their legal, political, and economic systems.

Communist bandit

Communist banditsrebel forces
Traditionally, the Republic of China on Taiwan (led by the Kuomintang/Nationalists (KMT/GMD)) has referred to the territories under the control of the Chinese Communist Party with several different names, e.g. "(territory controlled by the) Communist bandits", "occupied/unfree area (of China)" (as opposed to the "free area of the Republic of China"), "Communist China" (as opposed to either "Nationalist China" or "Democratic China"), "Red China" (as opposed to "Blue China"), and "mainland China (area)".
Nowadays outside mainland China, some Chinese people use the term "中共" (literally "Chinese Communist") to refer to the Communist China or Chinese Communist Party.

Four-Stage Theory of the Republic of China

are one and the sameequating Taiwan with the Republic of Chinafour-stage theory
Certain Pan-Green Taiwanese believe that there exist "two Chinas" and that the Republic of China (ROC) and Taiwan are one and the same, so they would be more inclined to use these terms (compared to those who believe that the ROC is illegally occupying Taiwan).
Lee's usage is considered as a departure from the convention, as this usage can be interpreted in the sense that the Republic of China's sovereignty does not extend to mainland China, which the People's Republic of China controls.

Cross-Strait relations

cross-straitCross-Strait conflictCross-Straits relations
Students of Taiwan origin receive special concessions in the National Higher Education Entrance Examination in mainland China.