Maize and Rice

A mixture of brown, white, and red indica rice, also containing wild rice, Zizania species
Plant fragments dated to 4200 BC found in the Guilá Naquitz Cave in Oaxaca, Mexico, showed maize had already been domesticated from teosinte.
Oryza sativa with small wind-pollinated flowers
Cultivation of maize in an illustration from the 16th c. Florentine Codex
Cooked brown rice from Bhutan
Ancient Mesoamerican relief, National Museum of Anthropology of Mexico
Jumli Marshi, brown rice from Nepal
Many small male flowers make up the male inflorescence, called the tassel.
Rice can come in many shapes, colors and sizes.
Zea mays 'Ottofile giallo Tortonese` – MHNT
Single grain of rice under handmade microscope
Zea mays "strawberry"—MHNT
Oryza sativa, commonly known as Asian rice
Zea mays "Oaxacan Green" MHNT
Unmilled to milled Japanese rice, from left to right, brown rice, rice with germ, white rice
Variegated maize ears
Tteumul, water from the washing of rice
Multicolored corn kernels (CSIRO)
-Rice processing- A: Rice with chaff B: Brown rice C: Rice with germ D: White rice with bran residue E: Musenmai (Japanese: 無洗米), "Polished and ready to boil rice", literally, non-wash rice (1): Chaff (2): Bran (3): Bran residue (4): Cereal germ (5): Endosperm
Exotic varieties of maize are collected to add genetic diversity when selectively breeding new domestic strains
Worldwide rice production
Teosinte (top), maize-teosinte hybrid (middle), maize (bottom)
Production of rice (2019)
Stucco head of the Maya maize god, 550–850 AD
Burning of rice residues after harvest, to quickly prepare the land for wheat planting, around Sangrur, Punjab, India.
Seedlings three weeks after sowing
Rice combine harvester Katori-city, Chiba Prefecture, Japan
Young stalks
After the harvest, rice straw is gathered in the traditional way from small paddy fields in Mae Wang District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand
Mature plants showing ears
Drying rice in Peravoor, India
Mature maize ears
Work by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture to measure the greenhouse gas emissions of rice production.
Harvesting maize, Jones County, Iowa
Chinese rice grasshopper (Oxya chinensis) Borneo, Malaysia
Harvesting maize, Rantasalmi, South Savonia, Finland
Chloroxylon is used for pest management in organic rice cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India.
Hand-picking harvest of maize in Myanmar
Rice seed collection from IRRI
Production of maize (2019)
Semi-peeled corn on the cob
Ancient statue of Dewi Sri from Java (c. 9th century)
Poster showing a woman serving muffins, pancakes, and grits, with canisters on the table labeled corn meal, grits, and hominy, US Food Administration, 1918
Hainanese chicken rice in Singapore
Mexican tamales made with corn meal
Boiled corn on a white plate
Farm-based maize silage digester located near Neumünster in Germany, 2007. Green inflatable biogas holder is shown on top of the digester.
Children playing in a maize kernel box
Female inflorescence, with young silk
Mature silk
Stalks, ears and silk
Male flowers
Full-grown maize plants
Mature maize ear on a stalk
Maize kernels
Maize plant diagram
Ear of maize with irregular rows of kernels
With white and yellow kernels

Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice.

- Maize

It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize.

- Rice

11 related topics

Alpha

Barley

Major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

Major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

Barley seeds with and without the outer husk
Seed under a microscope.
Barley
The cross-section of a barley root
Two-row and six-row barley
Barley
Genetic analysis on the spread of barley from 9,000 to 2,000 BCE
An account of barley rations issued monthly to adults (30 or 40 pints) and children (20 pints) written in cuneiform on clay tablet, written in year 4 of King Urukagina (circa 2350 BCE), from Girsu, Iraq, British Museum, London
Barley harvesting in Gaziantep, Turkey
Barley, oats, and some products made from them
Traditional floor malting of barley in Scotland
Barley straw used in a pond in Oud-Heverlee, Belgium
Non-hulless barley grains

In 2017, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced (149 e6t) behind maize, rice and wheat.

Poaceae

Large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants commonly known as grasses.

Large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants commonly known as grasses.

Inflorecence scheme and floral diagram. 1 – glume, 2 – lemma, 3 – awn, 4 – palea, 5 – lodicules, 6 – stamens, 7 – ovary, 8 – styles.
Grass flowers
A kangaroo eating grass
Wind-blown grass in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, United States
Setaria verticillata from Panicoideae
A lawn in front of a building
The gray area is the cricket pitch currently in use. Parallel to it are other pitches in various states of preparation which could be used in other matches.
Grass-covered house in Iceland
Typical grass seen in meadows
Leaves of Poa trivialis showing the ligules
Bamboo stem and leaves, nodes are evident
A Chasmanthium latifolium spikelet
Wheat spike and spikelet
Spikelet opened to show caryopsis
Harestail grass
Grass
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
Roots of Bromus hordeaceus
Barley mature spikes (Hordeum vulgare)
Illustration depicting both staminate and pistillate flowers of maize (Zea mays)
A grass flower head (meadow foxtail) showing the plain-coloured flowers with large anthers.
Anthers detached from a meadow foxtail flower
Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail
Setaria verticillata, bristly foxtail
Oryza sativa, Kerala, India

The Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, wheat, rice, barley, and millet as well as feed for meat-producing animals.

Examples of sources of gluten (clockwise from top): wheat as flour, spelt, barley, and rye as rolled flakes

Gluten

Structural protein naturally found in certain cereal grains.

Structural protein naturally found in certain cereal grains.

Examples of sources of gluten (clockwise from top): wheat as flour, spelt, barley, and rye as rolled flakes
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Wheat, a prime source of gluten
Gluten is often used in imitation meats (such as this mock duck) to provide supplemental protein and in vegetarian diets
Medical animation still showing flattened intestinal villi.

The storage proteins in other grains, such as maize (zeins) and rice (rice protein), are sometimes called gluten, but they do not cause harmful effects in people with celiac disease.

An assortment of different caryopses

Caryopsis

Type of simple dry fruit—one that is monocarpellate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat.

Type of simple dry fruit—one that is monocarpellate (formed from a single carpel) and indehiscent (not opening at maturity) and resembles an achene, except that in a caryopsis the pericarp is fused with the thin seed coat.

An assortment of different caryopses
Wheat spikelet with the three anthers sticking out
Caryopsis cross-section

The caryopsis is popularly called a grain and is the fruit typical of the family Poaceae (or Gramineae), which includes wheat, rice, and corn.

Wheat kernel compartments and macronutrients

Bran

Hard outer layers of cereal grain.

Hard outer layers of cereal grain.

Wheat kernel compartments and macronutrients
Rice bran
Wheat bran
Oat bran

Bran is present in cereal grain, including rice, corn (maize), wheat, oats, barley, rye and millet.

Diagram briefly covering pollination

Anemophily

Form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind.

Form of pollination whereby pollen is distributed by wind.

Diagram briefly covering pollination

Approximately 12% of plants across the globe are benefited by anemophily, including cereal crops like rice and corn and other prominent crop plants like wheat, rye, barley, and oats.

Unprocessed seeds of spelt, a historically important staple food

Staple food

Food that is eaten often and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given person or group of people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

Food that is eaten often and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given person or group of people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

Unprocessed seeds of spelt, a historically important staple food
White rice, boiled
Bread made from wheat flour
Pasta
Couscous
Maize (corn)
Edamame (green soybeans)
Kidney beans
Sorghum seeds and popped sorghum
Millet grains
Amaranth (left) and common wheat berries
Colored quinoa
Cassava roots
Chinese yams
Sweet potato salad
Ulluco tubers
Oca tubers
Taro roots
Potatoes
Plantain and banana

Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese, and dried legumes such as lentils and other beans.

Peas are an annual plant.

Annual plant

Plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then dies.

Plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one growing season, and then dies.

Peas are an annual plant.

Examples of true annuals include corn, wheat, rice, lettuce, peas, watermelon, beans, zinnia and marigold.

Structure of the amylose molecule

Starch

Polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

Polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

Structure of the amylose molecule
Structure of the amylopectin molecule
Starch mill at Ballydugan (Northern Ireland), built in 1792
West Philadelphia Starch works at Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), 1850
Faultless Starch Company at Kansas City
potato starch granules in cells of the potato
starch in endosperm in embryonic phase of maize seed
Corn starch, 800x magnified, under polarized light, showing characteristic extinction cross
Rice starch seen on light microscope. Characteristic for the rice starch is that starch granules have an angular outline and some of them are attached to each other and form larger granules
Granules of wheat starch, stained with iodine, photographed through a light microscope
Sago starch extraction from palm stems
Glucose syrup
Karo corn syrup advert 1917
Niagara corn starch advert 1880s
Pacific Laundry and Cooking Starch advert 1904
Starch adhesive
Gentleman with starched ruff in 1560
Kingsford Oswego Starch advertising, 1885
Rice starch for ironing

Worldwide, it is the most common carbohydrate in human diets, and is contained in large amounts in staple foods such as wheat, potatoes, maize (corn), rice, and cassava (manioc).

Skeletal formula and ball-and-stick model of the cation in thiamine

Thiamine

Vitamin, an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body.

Vitamin, an essential micronutrient, which cannot be made in the body.

Skeletal formula and ball-and-stick model of the cation in thiamine
A 3D representation of the TPP riboswitch with thiamine bound
Diamine used in the manufacture of thiamine
Takaki Kanehiro
Christiaan Eijkman
Gerrit Grijns
Umetaro Suzuki
Casimir Funk
Rudolph Peters

Some countries require or recommend fortification of grain foods such as wheat, rice or maize (corn) because processing lowers vitamin content.