A report on Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

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Indonesia

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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript.

Nagarakretagama

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Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript.
The extent of Majapahit according to Nagarakretagama.

The Nagarakretagama or Nagarakṛtāgama, also known as Desawarnana or Deśavarṇana, is an Old Javanese eulogy to Hayam Wuruk, a Javanese king of the Majapahit Empire.

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest

Srivijaya

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Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park

The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

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The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks
Javanese temple.

Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin

Gajah Mada

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Gajah Mada (c.

Gajah Mada (c.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin
The terracotta figure collection of Trowulan Museum. Mohammad Yamin used this clay image as a popular depiction of Gajah Mada.
The expansion of the Majapahit empire in the 14th century much owed to Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
According Nagarakretagama, Bubat square is located on northern parts of Majapahit capital city. The residence of Mahapatih Gajah Mada also located in northern part of the city, tradition linked this gate with Gajah Mada's residence.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite was named after Palapa oath.

1290 – c. 1364), also known as Jirnnodhara was, according to Old Javanese manuscripts, poems, and mythology, a powerful military leader and Mahapatih (the approximate equivalent of a modern Prime Minister) of the Javanese empire of Majapahit during the 14th century.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

One of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.

Borneo

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Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.
Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island
Kapuas River in Indonesia; at 1000 km in length, it is the longest river in Borneo.
The critically endangered Bornean orangutan, a great ape endemic to Borneo
NASA satellite image of Borneo on 19 May 2002
Logging road in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Dayak, the main indigenous people in the island, were feared for their headhunting practices.
Territorial loss of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei from 1400 to 1890 due to the beginning of Western imperialism
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island of Labuan on 24 December 1846
Map of the island divided between the British and the Dutch, 1898. The present boundaries of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are largely inherited from the British and Dutch colonial rules.
The Dayak tribe during an Erau ceremony in Tenggarong
Arab-Malay Sultan of Pontianak in 1930
Japanese troops march through the streets of Labuan on 14 January 1942.
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade on the island during Operation Oboe Six, 10 June 1945
Sukarno visiting Pontianak, West Kalimantan in 1963
Queen's Own Highlanders 1st Battalion conduct a patrol to search for enemy positions in the jungle of Brunei.
Balikpapan, a major city in Borneo
Political divisions of Borneo

The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom.

Modern artist's impression of Hayam Wuruk

Hayam Wuruk

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Modern artist's impression of Hayam Wuruk
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa Dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.

Hayam Wuruk (Sanskrit: हयम् वुरुक्, Kawi: ꦲꦪꦩ꧀ꦮꦸꦫꦸꦏ꧀) (1334–1389), also called Rajasanagara, Pa-ta-na-pa-na-wu, or Bhatara Prabhu after 1350, was a Javanese Hindu emperor from the Rajasa Dynasty and the 4th emperor of the Majapahit Empire.

Southeast Asia

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Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia
The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: 
Central Asia
Eastern Asia
Northern Asia
South-eastern Asia
Southern Asia
Western Asia
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries), with a high density of volcanoes situated in Indonesia and the Philippines.
The Mayon Volcano, Phillipines
Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province – the largest complex of Buddhist temples in Vietnam

After the departure of the Mongols, Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java in 1293.

Malaysia

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Country in Southeast Asia.

Country in Southeast Asia.

"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca
Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of Penang, the first British colony in what was to become Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat
The Perdana Putra houses the office of the Prime Minister.
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018
Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right:, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.
Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Mount Kinabalu, the highest summit in the country
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tiger.
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1870 to 2018
A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019
The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.
Population pyramid 2016
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census
A traditional house being built in Sabah
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year
Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Ministry of Education, Putrajaya
Topographic map of Malaysia; Mount Kinabalu is the highest summit in the country.
Köppen climate classification of Malaysia. The country is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Kuala Lumpur, the financial centre of Malaysia
The distribution of language families of Malaysia shown by colours:
(click image to enlarge) 
Malayic
Bornean
Aslian
Land Dayak
Sama–Bajaw
Philippine
Chinese
Areas with multiple languages

By the 13th and the 14th century, the Majapahit empire had successfully wrested control over most of the peninsula and the Malay Archipelago from Srivijaya.