A report on Majapahit and Muar (town)

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
The Muar Ferry Crossing, in the Battle of Muar, where the 45th Indian Brigade was disposed along 24 miles of river front with four companies of infantry north of the river and the remainder positioned south of the river, to cover the main coast road at Muar against the advance of the Imperial Guards Division.
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
NASA's Spaceborne radar image (SAR) shows the city of Muar is at the center of the left edge of the image at the mouth of the Muar River (Sungai Muar).
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Bandar Maharani in Muar District
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Muar Municipal Council
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Bandar Maharani Ferry Terminal
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Muar Trade Centre
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Muar High School
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
Old building in the town turned into a café dated back to 1926.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Otak-otak at Jalan Haji Abu.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Main building of Sultanah Fatimah Specialist Hospital.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

In 1361, it was claimed that Muar was a part of the Majapahit empire.

- Muar (town)

Next Langkasuka, Saimwang, Kelantan and Trengganu, Johor, Paka, Muar, Dungun, Tumasik (Temasek, where Singapore is today), Kelang (Klang Valley) and Kedah, Jerai (Gunung Jerai), Kanjapiniran, all are united.

- Majapahit

4 related topics with Alpha



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State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

The Royal Crown in Istana Bukit Serene, Johor, dubbed the "Jewel"
Map of the Dominion of Johor, 1727
A painting by John Edmund Taylor showing people in rowboats on the Johor River in the evening seen from Changi in Singapore, July 1879
Johor Bahru town during the British period, c. 1920
Indian troops embark onto boats during an invasion exercise in southern Johore, 13 November 1941.
Three Australian 8th Division members firing on Japanese Type 95 Ha-Gō tanks on the Muar-Parit Sulong road during the Battle of Muar, 18 January 1942
View of the blown up Johor–Singapore Causeway with the gap visible in the middle, which delayed the Japanese conquest of Singapore for over a week to 8 February 1942
Additional Japanese troops advancing through an iron bridge in Labis which had been destroyed by the retreating British forces down the Malayan Peninsula, 22 January 1942
British Brigadier J J McCully inspects men of the 4th Regiment of the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) guerrillas at Johor Bahru after the end of war against the Japanese, 1945
MPAJA guerrillas marching through the street of Johor Bahru during their disbandment ceremony in December 1945
Onn Jaafar (left), the Menteri Besar of Johor and founder of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) with Dr. W. Linehan (right), C.M.G. Adviser on Constitutional Affairs during the Federation of Malaya Agreements in 1948
Dato' Jaafar Muhammad Building in Kota Iskandar, which houses the office of the Menteri Besar of Johor
The Johor Royal Family in 2015
The Sultan Ismail Building houses the Johor State Legislative Assembly in Kota Iskandar, Iskandar Puteri.
A district and land office in Segamat District.
A district council office in Mersing District.
A municipal council office in Kluang District.
A FELDA office in Kota Tinggi District.
Sultan Ibrahim leading the Johor Military Forces (JMF) during the King's Birthday Parade of George V in Singapore, c. 1920
Map of the disputed island and rocks
Johor is located in southern Malay Peninsula as seen from NASA satellite image.
Forest trees of Johor in tropical rainforest climate
A female tiger shrike (Lanius tigrinus) in Panti Forest
Heron in a swamp of Johor
Crocodile sanctuary in Pasir Gudang.
Shipping container in Tanjung Pelepas Port
Theme park tourism such as the Legoland Malaysia Resort (pictured) has been a major part of the state economy since their opening in 2012.
Palm oil and pineapple plantation in Rengit, Batu Pahat District.
A farmers' market in Pontian Kechil, Pontian District.
Puteri Harbour Family Park landscapes
Johor Bahru city centre at dusk
A village in Johor with a telephone line
Tebrau Highway leading to the city centre, part of Federal Route 3
Johor Bahru Sentral railway station in Johor Bahru.
Senai International Airport in Senai.
Puteri Harbour International Ferry Terminal in Iskandar Puteri.
Sultanah Aminah Hospital, the main government hospital in the state
University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) chancellory building.
Southern University College main gate in Skudai, Iskandar Puteri.
Johor residents with families near the end of the year
Girls from the aboriginal people of Johor
Multilingual sign in Malay, English and Chinese at a workshop in Kota Tinggi.
The Johor Heritage Foundation building in the state capital
Zapin performance in a school in Batu Pahat
Chingay parade celebration in the capital city as part of Chinese New Year festivities in 2018
Mee bandung in Johor
The Tan Sri Dato' Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium was the home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim until 2019.
The new home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim since 2020.
Mount Ophir
Rawa Island beach
Sunrise over a palm oil plantation
Waterfall in Mount Belumut

Johor Bahru is the capital city and the economic centre of the state, Kota Iskandar is the seat of the state government, and Muar serves as the royal town of the state.

After the demise of the kingdom, much of the Malay coast fell under the jurisdiction of Siam and later Majapahit.

A modern artist's impression of Parameswara.

Parameswara (king)

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The last king of Singapura and the founder of Malacca.

The last king of Singapura and the founder of Malacca.

A modern artist's impression of Parameswara.
Map of 15th century Malacca and its contemporaries.

The king fled the island kingdom after a Majapahit naval invasion in 1398 and founded his new stronghold on the mouth of Bertam river in 1402.

In Muar, Parameswara contemplated establishing his new kingdom at either Biawak Busuk or at Kota Buruk.

Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript.


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Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript.
The extent of Majapahit according to Nagarakretagama.

The Nagarakretagama or Nagarakṛtāgama, also known as Desawarnana or Deśavarṇana, is an Old Javanese eulogy to Hayam Wuruk, a Javanese king of the Majapahit Empire.

And also in Hujung Medini (and Singapore): Pahang, Langkasuka, Saimwang, Kelantan, Trengganu, Johor, Paka, Muar, Dungun, Tumasik (where Singapore is today), Kelang (Klang Valley), Kedah, Jerai (Gunung Jerai), and Kanjapiniran.

The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century, during the reign of Mansur Shah

Malacca Sultanate

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Malay sultanate based in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.

Malay sultanate based in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.

The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century, during the reign of Mansur Shah
Map of 15th century Malacca and its contemporaries.
A memorial rock for the disembarkation point of Admiral Zheng He in 1405.
The replica of Malacca Sultanate's palace which was built from information and data obtained from the Malay Annals. This historical document had references to the construction and the architecture of palaces during the era of Sultan Mansur Shah, who ruled from 1458 to 1477.
A bronze relief of Hang Tuah, a legendary Malay hero. Exhibited at the National Museum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The surviving gate of the Portuguese Fortress of Malacca
Malacca's tin ingot, photo taken from National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur.

By the end of the 13th century, the Javanese Singhasari followed by the Majapahit had become dominant.

Parameswara (also known as "Iskandar Syah" in some accounts) fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before reaching a fishing village at the mouth of Bertam river (modern-day Malacca River).