A report on Majapahit and Nagarakretagama

Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript.
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
The extent of Majapahit according to Nagarakretagama.
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

The Nagarakretagama or Nagarakṛtāgama, also known as Desawarnana or Deśavarṇana, is an Old Javanese eulogy to Hayam Wuruk, a Javanese king of the Majapahit Empire.

- Nagarakretagama

Two primary sources were available to them: the Pararaton "Book of Kings" manuscript was written in the Kawi language c. 1600, and Nagarakretagama (Desawarnaña) was composed in Kawi in 1365.

- Majapahit

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Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.

Borneo

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Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.
Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island
Kapuas River in Indonesia; at 1000 km in length, it is the longest river in Borneo.
The critically endangered Bornean orangutan, a great ape endemic to Borneo
NASA satellite image of Borneo on 19 May 2002
Logging road in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Dayak, the main indigenous people in the island, were feared for their headhunting practices.
Territorial loss of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei from 1400 to 1890 due to the beginning of Western imperialism
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island of Labuan on 24 December 1846
Map of the island divided between the British and the Dutch, 1898. The present boundaries of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are largely inherited from the British and Dutch colonial rules.
The Dayak tribe during an Erau ceremony in Tenggarong
Arab-Malay Sultan of Pontianak in 1930
Japanese troops march through the streets of Labuan on 14 January 1942.
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade on the island during Operation Oboe Six, 10 June 1945
Sukarno visiting Pontianak, West Kalimantan in 1963
Queen's Own Highlanders 1st Battalion conduct a patrol to search for enemy positions in the jungle of Brunei.
Balikpapan, a major city in Borneo
Political divisions of Borneo

The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom.

Brunei

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Country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

Country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

Brunei territorial losses from 1400 to 1890
Boundaries of Brunei (green) since 1890
British adventurer James Brooke negotiating with the Sultan of Brunei, which led to the signing of the Treaty of Labuan, 1846
Ahmad Tajuddin, the 27th Sultan of Brunei, with members of his court in April 1941, eight months before the Japanese invaded Brunei
Nagato, Tone, Yamato and Musashi in Brunei Bay in October 1944
Major-General Wootten of the Australian 9th Division with Lieutenant-General Masao Baba (signing) of the Japanese 37th Division at the surrender ceremony at Labuan on 10 September 1945
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III
British soldiers in the British protectorate of Brunei on guard in the Seria oilfield, January 1963
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (right) in 2004
A topographic and geographic limits map of Brunei
Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei.
Brunei's Sultan and Foreign Minister Hassanal Bolkiah meets with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2015
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah with Indonesian President Joko Widodo, 6 October 2017
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah and Vladimir Putin during APEC 2000
Headscarves called tudong are compulsory for Brunei's Muslim schoolgirls
Brunei International Airport Mosque
A proportional representation of Brunei exports, 2019
BIMP-EAGA meeting in the office of Brunei Prime Minister on 25 April 2013. From left: Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Malaysian Representative and Filipino President Benigno Aquino III. Brunei is part of the BIMP-EAGA, a subregional economic co-operation initiative in Southeast Asia.
Royal Brunei Boeing 787 Dreamliner at London Heathrow Airport.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque at night.
Royal Regalia Museum
Nagato, Tone, Yamato and Musashi in Brunei Bay in October 1944

In the 14th century, the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Prapanca in 1365, mentioned Barune as the constituent state of Hindu Majapahit, which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin

Gajah Mada

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Gajah Mada (c.

Gajah Mada (c.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin
The terracotta figure collection of Trowulan Museum. Mohammad Yamin used this clay image as a popular depiction of Gajah Mada.
The expansion of the Majapahit empire in the 14th century much owed to Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
According Nagarakretagama, Bubat square is located on northern parts of Majapahit capital city. The residence of Mahapatih Gajah Mada also located in northern part of the city, tradition linked this gate with Gajah Mada's residence.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite was named after Palapa oath.

1290 – c. 1364), also known as Jirnnodhara was, according to Old Javanese manuscripts, poems, and mythology, a powerful military leader and Mahapatih (the approximate equivalent of a modern Prime Minister) of the Javanese empire of Majapahit during the 14th century.

Historical accounts of his life, political career, and administration are taken from several sources, mainly Pararaton ("The Book of Kings"), the Nagarakretagama (a Javanese-language eulogy), and an inscription dating from the mid 14th century.

North Sumatra

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Province of Indonesia located on the northern part of the island of Sumatra.

Province of Indonesia located on the northern part of the island of Sumatra.

Lake Toba, World's largest volcanic lake
Omo Sebua, means the big house. Is a traditional house from South Nias. It was the king of Tano Niha who lived in it, located in Bawomataluo
A tourist taken in a photo of Bagas Godang in Panyabungan, Mandailing Natal
Old Batak Village, or known as Bolon House (Rumah Bolon) in Simanindo
Maimoon Palace, a historical palace in Medan, it was used as a house for Deli Sultanate for a long time and still active till this day
Bukit Lawang, tourist village at the bank of Bahorok River, Langkat
Distribution of the Batak people and the Toba, Simalungun, Karo, Pakpak, Angkola and Mandailing sub-groups
Inside of Palm Oil Estate of Serdang Bedagai Regency
Paddy field in Ambarita village, Simanindo, Samosir Island
Sipisopiso, North Sumatra
Surfing in Tello Island, Nias
A Bahal Buddhist temple, an archaeological site in Padang Lawas, North Sumatra
Exterior of Kualanamu International Airport, Deli Serdang
Tanjung Morawa toll gate, in Deli Serdang, part of Belmera toll road
Azizi Mosque in Langkat
thumb|Huria Kristen Batak Protestan church in Balige
Darodaro or Big stones (megaliths) that was hauled upwards and used to memorial by Nias people in Bawomataluo village, it has been practised by people on the island since thousand years ago.
Situs Hopong in Dolok Sanggul, these stoned-statues site probably one of evidence of prehistoric Batak civilization
Chinese shaped coin founded in Situs Kota Cina, Labuhan Deli that presumably used as trading during Yuan Dynasty, 12 to 13th century
Bahal temple or known as Portibi is Buddhist candi complex in Bahal village, North Sumatra. The temple site is linked to Pannai Kingdom circa 11th to 13th century CE.
Princes from the Sultanate of Deli, Langkat and Serdang in Sumatra, Indonesia
Potrait of Sisingamangaraja XII, painted by Augustin Sibarani, from the obverse of the 1,000 rupiah banknote (1987 series)
Simalungun Headchiefs of East Sumatra residency, Dutch-East Indies
East Sumatra rally in Pematangsiantar, between 1945 and 1950
Lake Toba, World's largest volcanic lake
Landsat satellite photo of North Sumatra, Nias Island with Lake Toba in the center
North Sumatera governor main office, Medan
Omo Sebua, means "the big house". It refers to a traditional house from South Nias, in which formerly the king of Tano Niha lived, and is located in Bawomataluo
A tourist taken in a photo of Bagas Godang in Panyabungan, Mandailing Natal
Old Batak Toba Village, or known as Bolon House (Rumah Bolon) in Simanindo
Maimoon Palace, a historical palace in Medan. It was used as the residence for the Sultan of Deli for a long time and is still active use to this day
Siwaluh Jabu, Batak Karo traditional house, located in Karo Highlands
Simalungun Rumah Bolon in Pamatang Purba, Simalungun
Birdview of Palm Oil Estate of Asahan Regency
Skyline of capital Medan city
Local craftswomen weaving Ulos in Huta Raja village, Ulos is Bataknese traditional Tenun which is popular exported as garment from North Sumatera
Elephant conservasion area at Tangkahan Ecotourism Area in Mount Leuser National Park, North Sumatera
Pariban Hotsprings in Lau Sidebuk-debuk village, Karo Highlands
Exterior of Kualanamu International Airport, Deli Serdang
Moyo dance in Nias Island
Bataknese Tor-tor dance in Samosir Island
Cap Go Meh festival in Gunungsitoli, Nias Island
Malay-Deli bride in Maimoon Palace, Medan
The Indian community celebrated Thaipusam festival in Medan
The Javanese Bujang Ganong masked dancer, part of Reog, in North Sumatera
Azizi Mosque in Langkat, it was a royal mosque of the Sultanate of Langkat
thumb|HKBP or Batak protestant church in Balige
Maha Vihara Maitreya, one of largest Buddhist temple in Indonesia, located in Percut, Deli Serdang
Sri Mariamman Temple, Medan, the oldest Hindu temple in Medan
Shree Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Ji Sikh Gurdwara, Binjai

Furthermore, the Negarakertagama Kingdom by Mpu Prapanca from the 14th century find several names of countries found in North Sumatra, namely Pane, Haru, Mandailing, Tamiang, Lawas, and Barus.

The places are mainly defeated to Majapahit.

Johor

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State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

The Royal Crown in Istana Bukit Serene, Johor, dubbed the "Jewel"
Map of the Dominion of Johor, 1727
A painting by John Edmund Taylor showing people in rowboats on the Johor River in the evening seen from Changi in Singapore, July 1879
Johor Bahru town during the British period, c. 1920
Indian troops embark onto boats during an invasion exercise in southern Johore, 13 November 1941.
Three Australian 8th Division members firing on Japanese Type 95 Ha-Gō tanks on the Muar-Parit Sulong road during the Battle of Muar, 18 January 1942
View of the blown up Johor–Singapore Causeway with the gap visible in the middle, which delayed the Japanese conquest of Singapore for over a week to 8 February 1942
Additional Japanese troops advancing through an iron bridge in Labis which had been destroyed by the retreating British forces down the Malayan Peninsula, 22 January 1942
British Brigadier J J McCully inspects men of the 4th Regiment of the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) guerrillas at Johor Bahru after the end of war against the Japanese, 1945
MPAJA guerrillas marching through the street of Johor Bahru during their disbandment ceremony in December 1945
Onn Jaafar (left), the Menteri Besar of Johor and founder of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) with Dr. W. Linehan (right), C.M.G. Adviser on Constitutional Affairs during the Federation of Malaya Agreements in 1948
Dato' Jaafar Muhammad Building in Kota Iskandar, which houses the office of the Menteri Besar of Johor
The Johor Royal Family in 2015
The Sultan Ismail Building houses the Johor State Legislative Assembly in Kota Iskandar, Iskandar Puteri.
A district and land office in Segamat District.
A district council office in Mersing District.
A municipal council office in Kluang District.
A FELDA office in Kota Tinggi District.
Sultan Ibrahim leading the Johor Military Forces (JMF) during the King's Birthday Parade of George V in Singapore, c. 1920
Map of the disputed island and rocks
Johor is located in southern Malay Peninsula as seen from NASA satellite image.
Forest trees of Johor in tropical rainforest climate
A female tiger shrike (Lanius tigrinus) in Panti Forest
Heron in a swamp of Johor
Crocodile sanctuary in Pasir Gudang.
Shipping container in Tanjung Pelepas Port
Theme park tourism such as the Legoland Malaysia Resort (pictured) has been a major part of the state economy since their opening in 2012.
Palm oil and pineapple plantation in Rengit, Batu Pahat District.
A farmers' market in Pontian Kechil, Pontian District.
Puteri Harbour Family Park landscapes
Johor Bahru city centre at dusk
A village in Johor with a telephone line
Tebrau Highway leading to the city centre, part of Federal Route 3
Johor Bahru Sentral railway station in Johor Bahru.
Senai International Airport in Senai.
Puteri Harbour International Ferry Terminal in Iskandar Puteri.
Sultanah Aminah Hospital, the main government hospital in the state
University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) chancellory building.
Southern University College main gate in Skudai, Iskandar Puteri.
Johor residents with families near the end of the year
Girls from the aboriginal people of Johor
Multilingual sign in Malay, English and Chinese at a workshop in Kota Tinggi.
The Johor Heritage Foundation building in the state capital
Zapin performance in a school in Batu Pahat
Chingay parade celebration in the capital city as part of Chinese New Year festivities in 2018
Mee bandung in Johor
The Tan Sri Dato' Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium was the home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim until 2019.
The new home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim since 2020.
Mount Ophir
Rawa Island beach
Sunrise over a palm oil plantation
Waterfall in Mount Belumut

After the demise of the kingdom, much of the Malay coast fell under the jurisdiction of Siam and later Majapahit.

Meanwhile, the Old Javanese eulogy of Nagarakretagama called the area Ujong Medini (land's end), as it is the southernmost point of mainland Asia.

Modern artist's impression of Hayam Wuruk

Hayam Wuruk

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Modern artist's impression of Hayam Wuruk
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa Dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.

Hayam Wuruk (Sanskrit: हयम् वुरुक्, Kawi: ꦲꦪꦩ꧀ꦮꦸꦫꦸꦏ꧀) (1334–1389), also called Rajasanagara, Pa-ta-na-pa-na-wu, or Bhatara Prabhu after 1350, was a Javanese Hindu emperor from the Rajasa Dynasty and the 4th emperor of the Majapahit Empire.

Most of the accounts of his life were taken from the Nagarakretagama, a eulogy to Hayam Wuruk, and the Pararaton ("Book of Kings"), a Javanese historical chronicle.

Although popularly believed that the East Javanese statue of Prajnaparamita was the personification of Ken Dedes, queen of Singhasari, other recent opinion suggested that it was probably the deified personification of Gayatri Rajapatni instead.

Gayatri Rajapatni

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Gayatri Rajapatni (c.

Gayatri Rajapatni (c.

Although popularly believed that the East Javanese statue of Prajnaparamita was the personification of Ken Dedes, queen of Singhasari, other recent opinion suggested that it was probably the deified personification of Gayatri Rajapatni instead.

undefined1276—1350) was the queen consort of Majapahit's founder and first king Kertarajasa Jayawardhana, and also the mother of Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, the queen regnal of Majapahit.

The Nagarakretagama written in 1365 by Prapanca during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, Gayatri's grandson, describe the elaborate and solemn Sraddha ceremony dedicated for the departed spirit of revered Gayatri Rajapatni.

Singapore

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Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Letter from William Farquhar to Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam, the 21st Sultan of Brunei, dated 28 November 1819. In the first line, Farquhar mentions that Sultan Hussein Shah and Temenggong Abdul Rahman allowed the British East India Company to establish a factory in Singapore on 6 February 1819.
1825 survey map. Singapore's free port trade was at Singapore River for 150 years. Fort Canning hill (centre) was home to its ancient and early colonial rulers.
British evacuation in 1945 after the Japanese surrender. Kallang Airport's control tower near the city has been conserved.
Singapore thrived as an entrepôt. In the 1960s, bumboats were used to transport cargoes and supplies between nearshore ships and Singapore River.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Istana is the official residence and office of the President, as well as the working office of the Prime Minister.
The Supreme Court (left) and the Parliament House (right) where the Singapore Parliament convenes.
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at the 2017 G20 meeting in Germany. Since 2010, Singapore has often been invited to participate in G20 processes.
In 2007, Singaporean troopers were deployed in Afghanistan as part of a multinational coalition.
Republic of Singapore Air Force Black Knights perform at the Singapore Air Show.
Speakers' Corner in Chinatown provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area usually restricted in other parts of the island.
An outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways
Singapore Botanic Gardens is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – one of three gardens in the world, and the only tropical garden, to be recognised as such.
Singapore Airlines, the country's flag carrier, celebrated the nation's 2015 Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380.
A proportional representation of Singapore exports, 2019
The Merlion, the official mascot of Singapore
The world's first urban congestion-pricing scheme started in the city centre in 1975 and was fully automated by Electronic Road Pricing in 1998.
Chinese (East Asian), Malay (Southeast Asian), and Indian (South Asian) women in Singapore, circa 1890. To promote racial harmony among the three races, a unique Racial Harmony Day is celebrated on 21 July every year.
Singapore Management University is one of six autonomous universities in the city-state
National University Hospital is the second largest hospital in the city, serving one million patients yearly.
Ornate details on top of Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown district, Singapore's oldest Hindu temple since 1827
The National Gallery Singapore oversees the world's largest public collection of Singapore and Southeast Asian art
Lau Pa Sat hawker centre in the financial district. Satay cart-stalls roll in after dusk, on a side street.
Joseph Schooling is a gold medalist and Olympic record holder at the Rio 2016 Games – 100 m butterfly.
The Ministry of Communications and Information oversees the development of Infocomm, Media and the arts.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Speakers' Corner at Hong Lim Park provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area for Singaporeans often restricted in other parts of the country.

Early references to the name Temasek (or Tumasik) are found in the Nagarakretagama, a Javanese eulogy written in 1365, and a Vietnamese source from the same time period.

Parameswara declared independence from Majapahit and mounted a Lion Throne, thus claiming the Srivijaya Empire.

Modern artist's impression of Raden Wijaya

Raden Wijaya

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Modern artist's impression of Raden Wijaya
The statue of Harihara, the god combination of Shiva and Vishnu. It was the mortuary deified portrayal of Kertarajasa. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar. (National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)

Raden Wijaya or Raden Vijaya (also known as Nararya Sangramawijaya, regnal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana) (reigned 1293–1309) was a Javanese emperor, and the founder and first monarch of the Majapahit Empire.

The history of his founding of Majapahit was written in several records, including Pararaton and Negarakertagama.

Sarawak

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State of Malaysia.

State of Malaysia.

The rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of Sarawak.
James Brooke, the first White Rajah
Territorial expansion of the Raj of Sarawak from 1841 to 1905 played a significant role to the present-day boundaries of the modern state of Sarawak.
Crowds throng a street in Kuching to witness the arrival of Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 12 September 1945.
Tan Sri Datuk Amar Stephen Kalong Ningkan declaring the formation of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963
Timeline of political parties in Sarawak
The State Assembly building is located near the Kuching waterfront.
Julan waterfall (located at Usun Apau Plieran) is the highest waterfall in Sarawak
The Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia
An orangutan peeling a banana at Semenggoh Wildlife Reserve.
A logging camp along the Rajang River
An LNG port at Bintulu, Sarawak
Turbines inside the Bakun Dam power house. The dam is the main source for electric energy in Sarawak.
French Romani Manouche band performing during Rainforest World Music Festival 2006
Kuching International Airport terminal
Bintulu International Container Terminal (BICT) at Bintulu seaport
The Sarawak General Hospital
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) chancellory building
Major ethnic groups in Sarawak. Clockwise from top right: Melanau girls with the traditional Baju Kurung, Sarawakian Chinese woman in her traditional dress of Cheongsam, a Bidayuh girl, and an Iban warrior in his traditional dress.
A Kayan tribesman, playing the Sapé.
Ngajat, the Iban warrior dance gazetted as part of Sarawak culture.
A bowl of Sarawak laksa
alt=Tall, light grey stone columns protruding above a forest|Pinnacles at Gunung Mulu National Park
The vegetations at the summit of Mount Murud
South China Sea view from Sarawak
alt=A mudflat receding into the sea in the distance, with a cloud-topped mountain beyond|Parts of the Bako National Park
St. Joseph Cathedral
Old Sarawak State Mosque
Hong San Si Temple
The distribution of language families of Sarawak shown by colours:
(click image to enlarge) 
Malayic
North Borneo and Melanau Kajang languages
Land Dayak
Areas with multiple languages

In the 14th century, the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Prapanca in 1365, mentioned Barune as the constituent state of Hindu Majapahit, which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor.