A report on PalembangSrivijaya and Majapahit

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Srivijaya Archaeological Park located southwest from Palembang city centre (green). The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A statue of Buddha, discovered in Bukit Seguntang archaeological site, today displayed in Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum Palembang
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
The walled city of Palembang with its three fortresses in 1682
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Local elders of Palembang during the Dutchcolonial period
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
A painting of Palembang during Dutch rule
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Coat of arms of Palembang during colonial era, adopted in 1925
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers landing during the battle of Palembang, 13 February 1942
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
The opening ceremony of the 2011 Southeast Asian Games in Jakabaring Stadium, Palembang, 11 November 2011
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
A NASA satellite image showing the extent of the haze on 24 September 2015. Palembang was directly affected by the haze during this time, disrupting air travels and worsening the health of its residents.
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Panorama of Palembang from southeast to southwest as seen from Pasar 16 Ilir
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Kajang boats were widely used for transportation in Musi River during colonial times.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport station of the Palembang Light Rail Transit
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
View of central area in Palembang Icon Shopping Mall
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Great Mosque of Palembang
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
People enjoying local dishes on floating warung boats
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Rumah Limas of IDR 10000 banknote is now located in Museum Balaputradewa, Palembang
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Bukit Siguntang Mahameru (Seguntang Hill), Palembang. Based on the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals), the hill witnessed the arrival of Sri Maharaja Sang Sapurba Paduka Sri Trimurti Tri Buana, a legendary figure believed to be the progenitor of many royal Malay dynasties in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula and Borneo.
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Al-Qur'an Al-Akbar, a major religious site in Palembang. A five-story gigantic replica of the Quran.
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palembang bride in Aesan Gede wedding costume wearing gold jewellery and songket
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Jakabaring Aquatic Center in Jakabaring Sport City complex
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
SMA Negeri 19 Palembang, a public high school in Palembang
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
SMA PGRI 2 Palembang, a private high school in Palembang
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

It was the capital of Srivijaya, a Buddhist kingdom that ruled much of the western Indonesian Archipelago and controlled many maritime trade routes, including the Strait of Malacca.

- Palembang

The earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, Sumatra, dated 16 June 682.

- Srivijaya

The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.

- Srivijaya

Some say that the name was given by four brothers who survived a shipwreck near Musi River during the Majapahit reign.

- Palembang

To revive the fortune of Malayu in Sumatra, in the 1370s, a Malay ruler of Palembang sent an envoy to the court of the first emperor of the newly established Ming dynasty.

- Majapahit

He invited China to resume the tributary system, just like Srivijaya did several centuries earlier.

- Majapahit

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A modern artist's impression of Parameswara.

Parameswara (king)

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The last king of Singapura and the founder of Malacca.

The last king of Singapura and the founder of Malacca.

A modern artist's impression of Parameswara.
Map of 15th century Malacca and its contemporaries.

The king fled the island kingdom after a Majapahit naval invasion in 1398 and founded his new stronghold on the mouth of Bertam river in 1402.

Portuguese accounts however, written a hundred years after his death, suggest he was from Palembang in Sumatra and usurped the throne of Singapura; he was driven out, either by the Siamese or the Majapahit, and went on to found Malacca.

Both Suma Oriental and Malay Annals do contain similar stories about a fleeing Srivijayan prince arriving in Singapura and about the last king of Singapura who fled to the west coast of Malay peninsula to found Malacca.

The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century, during the reign of Mansur Shah

Malacca Sultanate

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Malay sultanate based in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.

Malay sultanate based in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.

The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century, during the reign of Mansur Shah
Map of 15th century Malacca and its contemporaries.
A memorial rock for the disembarkation point of Admiral Zheng He in 1405.
The replica of Malacca Sultanate's palace which was built from information and data obtained from the Malay Annals. This historical document had references to the construction and the architecture of palaces during the era of Sultan Mansur Shah, who ruled from 1458 to 1477.
A bronze relief of Hang Tuah, a legendary Malay hero. Exhibited at the National Museum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The surviving gate of the Portuguese Fortress of Malacca
Malacca's tin ingot, photo taken from National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur.

The region was dominated by the Srivijaya empire centered on Palembang in Sumatra until it was weakened by the Chola Empire in the 11th century.

By the end of the 13th century, the Javanese Singhasari followed by the Majapahit had become dominant.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods

Mataram Kingdom

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Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
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The Plaosan temple with Mount Merapi in the background.
Canggal inscription (732), created by King Sanjaya.
The 9th century Central Javanese gold and silver image of the Mahayana Buddhist goddess Tara
The construction of Kalasan temple was mentioned in Kalasan inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran.
The construction of Manjusrigrha temple was mentioned in Manjusrigrha inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran and completed during Dharanindra reign.
The construction of Mendut temple was initiated and completed during the reign of King Indra (r. 780–800), a valiant king of Shailendra dynasty.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (circa 900 CE) from the Laguna de Bay area in Luzon, the Philippines. The inscription invokes the "chief" (pamegat) of "Mdang" as one of the authorities in the clearing of a debt owed to the "chief and commander" (pamegat senapati) of "Tundun".
The massive stone stupa-mandala of Borobudur was completed in 825 during the reign of King Samaratungga.
Ratu Boko, a fortified hill, probably referred in Shivagrha inscription as the location of a battle.
Shivagrha inscription dated 778 Saka (856 CE), one of the historical source dated from the Mataram Kingdom.
Ijo, a 10th-century Hindu temple located on Ijo Hill Southeast from Prambanan
A battle scene depicted on a bas-relief in Prambanan.
Bubrah temple
Sajiwan Buddhist temple, linked to Nini Haji Rakryan Sanjiwana or Sri Kahulunnan
Borobudur ship, a ship used by Javanese people for sailing as far as Ghana.
Towering Merapi volcano overlooking Prambanan prasad tower. It was suggested that Merapi volcanic eruption had devastated Mataram capital, forcing them to relocate in the east.
Sambisari temple buried five metres under volcanic debris of Mount Merapi.
Barong Hindu temple, constructed on large terraces.
Badut temple near Malang, East Java circa 8th century
Anjukladang inscription (937), issued by King Sindok during his power consolidation in East Java.
Bodhisattva Manjushri from Goa Gajah cave, Bali, demonstrated the influence of Javanese Mataram Sailendran art.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra, the hostility between two kingdoms has led to the collapse of Mataram kingdom.
Buddhist bronze figure depicting Boddhisattva Padmapani, 10th-century dated from late period of Mataram Kingdom
Plaosan twin temples
The scene of the Javanese court depicted in Borobudur bas relief
Prambanan prāsāda (towers) viewed from Ratu Boko hill, the area in Prambanan Plain was the location of the Mataram capital.
The bas relief of 8th century Borobudur depicts the scene in royal court.
Image of Boddhisattva on Plaosan temple.
The bas-relief in 8th century Borobudur depicting rice agriculture in ancient Java
Earliest evidence of a currency system in Java — Javanese gold mas or tahil ingots, circa the 9th century
A nobleman accompanied by his entourage and servants, a bas-relief of Borobudur.
A Buddhist hermit meditating in secluded forest, Borobudur bas-relief
The statue of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani inside the Mendut temple
Shiva statue in main chamber of Prambanan.
The Wonoboyo hoard displays the immense wealth and artistic achievement of the Mataram kingdom.
The magnificent 9th-century Hindu temple of Prambanan, Yogyakarta, was a major Hindu monument in the kingdom of Mataram.
Bas relief in Prambanan depicting a scene taken from Ramayana. The translation of Indian epic into Javanese Kakawin Ramayana took place during Mataram kingdom.
National Vesak ceremony in Borobudur, the Hindu-Buddhist temples dated from Mataram Kingdom are especially important for pilgrimage and ceremony for Indonesian Buddhist and Hindus.
The Javanese Ramayana Ballet perform in Prambanan open air stage. The Mataram Kingdom era has left a profound impact in Javanese culture.

At its peak, the kingdom had become a dominant empire—not only in Java, but also in Sumatra, Bali, southern Thailand, Indianized kingdoms of the Philippines, and the Khmer in Cambodia.

Either ways, it seems that Balaputra eventually ruled the Sumatran branch of Shailendra dynasty and enthroned in Srivijayan capital of Palembang.

The proper urban development as a city took place later in 13th-century Majapahit's Trowulan.