A report on MajapahitSrivijaya and Temasek

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Part of Mao Kun map from Wubei Zhi which is based on the early 15th century navigation maps of Zheng He showing Temasek (淡馬錫) at the top left.
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Another suggestion is that it may be a reference to a king of Srivijaya, Maharaja Tan ma sa na ho.

- Temasek

The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.

- Srivijaya

By the 14th century, the Srivijaya empire had declined, and the Majapahit and Ayutthaya Kingdom became dominant in the region and alternatively made claim to Temasek.

- Temasek

He invited China to resume the tributary system, just like Srivijaya did several centuries earlier.

- Majapahit

In the 14th century a Malay Kingdom of Singapura was established, and it promptly attracted a Majapahit navy that regarded it as Tumasik, a rebellious colony.

- Majapahit

The strongest of these Malay kingdoms was Jambi, which captured the Srivijaya capital in 1088, then the Dharmasraya kingdom, and the Temasek kingdom of Singapore, and then remaining territories.

- Srivijaya

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Kingdom of Singapore, with ruins of an old wall still visible in 1825 and marked on this map.

Kingdom of Singapura

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Kingdom of Singapore, with ruins of an old wall still visible in 1825 and marked on this map.
The 1573 map by Egnazio Danti showing Cingatola as an island located on the tip of Regio di Malaca.
Historic Indosphere cultural influence zone of Greater India for transmission of elements of Indian elements such as the honorific titles, naming of people, naming of places, mottos of organisations and educational institutes as well as adoption of Hinduism, Buddhism, Indian architecture, martial arts, Indian music and dance, traditional Indian clothing, and Indian cuisine, a process which has also been aided by the ongoing historic expansion of Indian diaspora.
Statue of Sang Nila Utama at the Raffles' Landing Site.
Depiction of Malay warriors of ancient Singapura on a relief in Fort Canning Park, Singapore.
A depiction of the legendary strongman Badang lifting the Singapore Stone at National Day Parade 2016.
Carved mural on a wall in Fort Canning Park depicting activities which may have occurred in 14th-15th century Singapore.
An artist's impression of Parameswara, the last king of Singapura.
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, displayed in the Singapore History Gallery of the National Museum of Singapore

The Kingdom of Singapura (Malay: Kerajaan Singapura) was an Indianised Malay Hindu-Buddhist kingdom thought to have been established during the early history of Singapore upon its main island Pulau Ujong, then also known as Temasek, from 1299 until its fall in 1398.

The settlement developed in the 13th or 14th century and rose from a small Srivijayan trading outpost into a centre of international trade in the Malay Archipelago, India and the Yuan Dynasty.

It was however claimed by two regional powers at that time, Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south.

A modern artist's impression of Parameswara.

Parameswara (king)

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The last king of Singapura and the founder of Malacca.

The last king of Singapura and the founder of Malacca.

A modern artist's impression of Parameswara.
Map of 15th century Malacca and its contemporaries.

The king fled the island kingdom after a Majapahit naval invasion in 1398 and founded his new stronghold on the mouth of Bertam river in 1402.

Both Suma Oriental and Malay Annals do contain similar stories about a fleeing Srivijayan prince arriving in Singapura and about the last king of Singapura who fled to the west coast of Malay peninsula to found Malacca.

The only Chinese first-hand account of 14th century Temasek (the name used before it was changed to Singapura), Dao Yi Zhi Lue written by Wang Dayuan, indicates that Temasek was ruled by a local chief (before the time of Parameswara).

The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century, during the reign of Mansur Shah

Malacca Sultanate

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Malay sultanate based in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.

Malay sultanate based in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.

The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century, during the reign of Mansur Shah
Map of 15th century Malacca and its contemporaries.
A memorial rock for the disembarkation point of Admiral Zheng He in 1405.
The replica of Malacca Sultanate's palace which was built from information and data obtained from the Malay Annals. This historical document had references to the construction and the architecture of palaces during the era of Sultan Mansur Shah, who ruled from 1458 to 1477.
A bronze relief of Hang Tuah, a legendary Malay hero. Exhibited at the National Museum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The surviving gate of the Portuguese Fortress of Malacca
Malacca's tin ingot, photo taken from National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur.

The region was dominated by the Srivijaya empire centered on Palembang in Sumatra until it was weakened by the Chola Empire in the 11th century.

By the end of the 13th century, the Javanese Singhasari followed by the Majapahit had become dominant.

According to the Malay Annals, a prince from Palembang named Seri Teri Buana who claimed to be a descendant of Alexander the Great and Rajendra Chola I, stayed in the island of Bintan for several years before he set sail and landed on Temasek in 1299.