A report on Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

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A candi bentar marks the entrance into a Balinese temple Pura Lempuyang Luhur, Bali.

Candi bentar

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Classical Javanese and Balinese gateway entrance commonly found at the entrance of religious compounds, kraton palaces, or cemeteries in Indonesia.

Classical Javanese and Balinese gateway entrance commonly found at the entrance of religious compounds, kraton palaces, or cemeteries in Indonesia.

A candi bentar marks the entrance into a Balinese temple Pura Lempuyang Luhur, Bali.
Wringin Lawang split gate at Trowulan, one of the oldest surviving candi bentar.
Balinese dance performance in front of candi bentar and paduraksa gates.
A candi bentar structure appears in a relief at the 13th-century Candi Jago.
A row of candi bentars at Kaibon Palace, Banten.
The Majapahit style candi bentar of Menara Kudus Mosque.
A Cirebon-style candi bentar as a gate of bus terminal in Cirebon.
A Candi bentar in Kebun Raya Bali
A Candi bentar in Ngurah Rai International Airport, Bali

There are several different styles of candi bentar, from plain red bricks structure of Majapahit-style with its derivations of Cirebon, Demak, Kudus and early Mataram Sultanate style, the stucco-coated split gates of Kaibon Palace in Banten also in city of Surakarta and Yogyakarta, to the richly adorned split gates of Balinese temples and palaces compound.

Muar (town)

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Historical town and the capital of Muar District, Johor, Malaysia.

Historical town and the capital of Muar District, Johor, Malaysia.

The Muar Ferry Crossing, in the Battle of Muar, where the 45th Indian Brigade was disposed along 24 miles of river front with four companies of infantry north of the river and the remainder positioned south of the river, to cover the main coast road at Muar against the advance of the Imperial Guards Division.
NASA's Spaceborne radar image (SAR) shows the city of Muar is at the center of the left edge of the image at the mouth of the Muar River (Sungai Muar).
Bandar Maharani in Muar District
Muar Municipal Council
Bandar Maharani Ferry Terminal
Muar Trade Centre
Muar High School
Old building in the town turned into a café dated back to 1926.
Otak-otak at Jalan Haji Abu.
Main building of Sultanah Fatimah Specialist Hospital.

In 1361, it was claimed that Muar was a part of the Majapahit empire.

Jabung Temple, 2017

Jabung

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Jabung Temple, 2017
The detail of kala's head on upper part of the niche
Jabung temple in 1866

Jabung is a 14th-century Buddhist temple dated from Majapahit era, located in the Jabung Sisir village (desa), Paiton area, Probolinggo district, East Java, Indonesia.

Yogyakarta

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Capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, in the south-central part of the island of Java.

Capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, in the south-central part of the island of Java.

Kotagede, former capital of the Mataram Sultanate.
The Yogyakarta sultanate palace's main pavilion
The Taman Sari Water Castle, the former royal garden of the Sultan of Yogyakarta
Administration of Yogyakarta City
Borobudur is the world's largest Buddhist archaeological site.
Wayang (shadow puppets) in Yogyakarta style, a scene from Irawan's Wedding. Mid-20th century, from the University of Hawaii Department of Theatre and Dance.
Kawung Motif in batik from Yogyakarta.
Kotagede silverwork.
Mandala Krida Stadium
Yogyakarta railway station
Trans Jogja Bus. A bus rapid transit system in Yogyakarta.
Main building of Panti Rapih Hospital.

During the Majapahit era, the area surrounding modern Yogyakarta was identified again as "Mataram" and recognised as one of the twelve Majapahit provinces in Java ruled by a Duke known as Bhre Mataram.

From the top to bottom right: Statue of Slamet Riyadi, Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat , Bank of Indonesia office, Sridewari Park, Citywalk Ngarsopuro, Great Mosque of Surakarta , Pasar gede Harjonagoro.

Surakarta

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City in Central Java, Indonesia.

City in Central Java, Indonesia.

From the top to bottom right: Statue of Slamet Riyadi, Kraton Surakarta Hadiningrat , Bank of Indonesia office, Sridewari Park, Citywalk Ngarsopuro, Great Mosque of Surakarta , Pasar gede Harjonagoro.
Surakarta City Hall.
Pasar Klewer and Gapura Keraton (Klewer Textile Market and Keraton Gate).
Adi Sumarmo International Airport.
Batik Solo Trans.
The National Press Monument
Portrait of Pakubuwono X, wearing the uniform of a KNIL major-general.

The Majapahit empire renewed this ferry charter in 1358.

The reconstructed base of Surawana temple.

Surawana

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The reconstructed base of Surawana temple.

Surawana (Candi Surawana, sometimes called Candi Surowono) is a Hindu temple, of the Majapahit Kingdom, located in the Canggu village of the Kediri near Pare district in East Java, Indonesia.

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika included in the National emblem of Indonesia, the Garuda Pancasila.

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika

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Official national motto of Indonesia, inscribed in the National emblem of Indonesia, the Garuda Pancasila, written on the scroll gripped by the Garuda's claws.

Official national motto of Indonesia, inscribed in the National emblem of Indonesia, the Garuda Pancasila, written on the scroll gripped by the Garuda's claws.

Bhinneka Tunggal Ika included in the National emblem of Indonesia, the Garuda Pancasila.

The phrase is a quotation from an Old Javanese poem Kakawin Sutasoma, written by Mpu Tantular, a famous poet of Javanese Literature during the reign of the Majapahit empire sometime in the 14th century, under the reign of King Rājasanagara, also known as Hayam Wuruk.

Cerucuh

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Ancient, small Malay trading boat.

Ancient, small Malay trading boat.

One of the earliest record of cerucuh has a background of 14th century, being mentioned in Malay Annals which was composed no earlier than 17th century, being used by Majapahit empire during the first Majapahit attack on Singapura (1350).

Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.

Kakawin Sutasoma

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Old Javanese poem in poetic meters .

Old Javanese poem in poetic meters .

Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Figure of gold from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada

Kakawin Sutasoma was written by Tantular during the golden age of the Majapahit empire, in the reign of either Prince Rajasanagara or King Hayam Wuruk.

Part of Mao Kun map from Wubei Zhi which is based on the early 15th century navigation maps of Zheng He showing Temasek (淡馬錫) at the top left.

Temasek

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Early recorded name of a settlement on the site of modern Singapore.

Early recorded name of a settlement on the site of modern Singapore.

Part of Mao Kun map from Wubei Zhi which is based on the early 15th century navigation maps of Zheng He showing Temasek (淡馬錫) at the top left.

By the 14th century, the Srivijaya empire had declined, and the Majapahit and Ayutthaya Kingdom became dominant in the region and alternatively made claim to Temasek.