A report on Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

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Expansion of Singhasari during the reign of Kertanegara

Singhasari

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Javanese Hindu kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292.

Javanese Hindu kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292.

Expansion of Singhasari during the reign of Kertanegara
A mandala of Amoghapāśa from the Singhasari period
The serene beauty of Prajnaparamita statue found near Singhasari temple is believed to be the portrayal statue of Queen Ken Dedes, wife of Ken Arok (the collection of National Museum of Indonesia).
Singhasari temple built as a mortuary temple to honour Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari.
The land of Singhasari when at its peak during 1291
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa Dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.

He is considered the founder of the Rajasa dynasty of both the Singhasari and later the Majapahit line of monarchs.

Bajang Ratu, the elegant paduraksa-style gate at Trowulan, Mojokerto

Trowulan

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Archaeological site in Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency, in the Indonesian province of East Java.

Archaeological site in Trowulan Subdistrict, Mojokerto Regency, in the Indonesian province of East Java.

Bajang Ratu, the elegant paduraksa-style gate at Trowulan, Mojokerto
Bajang Ratu in 1929, before restoration
Trowulan Archaeological Site. The red square is archaeological sites, the light cyan is traces of ancient canals.
Candi Tikus bathing place
Wringin Lawang, the gate at Trowulan, Mojokerto
Brahu temple
Segaran pool
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th–15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of the National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)

It includes approximately 100 square kilometres and has been theorized to be the site of the eponymous capital city of the Majapahit Empire, which is described by Mpu Prapanca in the 14th-century poem Nagarakretagama and in a 15th-century Chinese source.

Bali

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Province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Subak irrigation system
Puputan monument
2002 Bali bombings memorial
Aerial photograph of Bali
Mount Agung is the highest point of Bali.
Bali myna is found only on Bali and is critically endangered.
Monkeys in Uluwatu
Uluwatu
Wood carving
Kuta Beach is a popular tourist spot.
Ogoh-ogoh procession on the eve of Nyepi
I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport
One of the major forms of transport is the scooter.
Bali Mandara Toll Road
Balinese people
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Hindu temples.
Holy Spirit Cathedral, Denpasar
Kecak dance
Balinese cuisine
Cremation ceremony in Ubud
Kapten I Wayan Dipta Stadium, the home of Bali United F.C.
The cliff of Nusa Penida with Kelingking beach at the foregound
Detailed map of Bali
Several tourist spot in Bali island, from top left to right: Sunset over Amed beach with Mount Agung in the background, Garuda Wisnu Kencana monument, Tanah Lot temple, view from top of Besakih Temple, scuba diving around Pemuteran, The Rock Bar at Jimbaran Bay, and various traditional Balinese people activities
Trans Sarbagita bus
Pura Ulun Danu Bratan
Kecak dance
Cremation ceremony in Nusa Penida
Melasti, is a Hindu Balinese purification ceremony and ritual
Rejang, A sacred balinesse dance to greet The Gods that come down to the earth on ceremony day
Penataran Lempuyang Temple, Gunung Lempuyang, Bali
Ibnu Batutah Mosque, Kuta
Saint Joseph's Church, Denpasar
Ling Sii Miao Buddhist Temple, Denpasar

The Hindu Majapahit Empire (1293–1520 AD) on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343.

Known range of Demak's military operation until the reign of Sultan Trenggana (1521-1546)

Demak Sultanate

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Javanese Muslim state located on Java's north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present-day city of Demak.

Javanese Muslim state located on Java's north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present-day city of Demak.

Known range of Demak's military operation until the reign of Sultan Trenggana (1521-1546)
Demak Great Mosque, built by Sultan Al-Fattah in the late 15th century with a traditional Javanese tajug stacked pyramidal roof
An early-18th century map of Java. Note that only major trading ports on the northern coast were known to the Europeans.
From west to east:
Map by Egnazio Danti (1573) showing Dema on the center north coast of Iava Magiore (Java)
The greatest extent of Demak Sultanate during Trenggana's reign.
Demak and nearby ports, with approximate coastline when Muria and Java were still separated
Interior of the Grand Mosque of Demak showing saka guru or four main wooden columns. The mosque was built using vernacular Javanese architecture.

A port fief to the Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam brought by Muslim traders from China, Gujarat, Arabia and also Islamic kingdoms in the region, such as Samudra Pasai, Malacca and Bani (Muslim) Champa.

Modern artist's impression of Raden Wijaya

Raden Wijaya

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Modern artist's impression of Raden Wijaya
The statue of Harihara, the god combination of Shiva and Vishnu. It was the mortuary deified portrayal of Kertarajasa. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar. (National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)

Raden Wijaya or Raden Vijaya (also known as Nararya Sangramawijaya, regnal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana) (reigned 1293–1309) was a Javanese emperor, and the founder and first monarch of the Majapahit Empire.

East Java

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Province of Indonesia located in the easternmost hemisphere of Java island.

Province of Indonesia located in the easternmost hemisphere of Java island.

Statues of Singhasari temple, circa 1910s
The Ampel Mosque in Surabaya, the oldest surviving mosque in Java and second oldest in Indonesia, was built in 1421.
Operation Transom, destroyed Tanjung Perak in 1944.
Eastern Salient of Java mountain range view from Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park at early morning
Light snow and frost is common at East Java highlands over 1500 meters above sea level in middle of year during late night until morning.
Administrative Map of East Java
Surabaya is one of the industrial, transportational, commercial, and financial center of Indonesia.
Surabaya-Gempol Expressway
Penataran train in Malang railway station
Tanjung Perak at night
Terminal 1 of Juanda International Airport
Reog, famous Ponorogoan dance
Gandrung, iconic Banyuwangi dance
Islamic Santri students celebrate Santri day in Southern Malang
Deer in Baluran National Park
Rujak Cingur, traditional dish from East Java
CLS Knights, most famous professional basketball club in Indonesia.
Islamic Ampel Mosque, Surabaya (circa 1920s)
Kayutangan Catholic Church, Downtown Malang (circa 1935)
Traditional East Java Christian Church, Mojowarno, Jombang
Tengger (Hindu temple) Pura Luhur Ponten, near Bromo Crater
Buddhist Maha Vihara Mojopahit, Trowulan, Mojokerto
Kwan Sing Bio Chinese Temple, Tuban
Jawa Timur Park in Batu
Madakaripura waterfall in Probolinggo
Ijen crater in Banyuwangi
Kedung Tumpang beach in Tulungagung
House of Sampoerna, Surabaya
Trowulan ancient city, Mojokerto
Maulana Malik Ibrahim tomb complex
Sempu Island, located in the south of Malang

Ken Arok dynasty's descendants became kings of Singhasari and Majapahit from the 13th until the 15th century.

Singapore

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Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Letter from William Farquhar to Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam, the 21st Sultan of Brunei, dated 28 November 1819. In the first line, Farquhar mentions that Sultan Hussein Shah and Temenggong Abdul Rahman allowed the British East India Company to establish a factory in Singapore on 6 February 1819.
1825 survey map. Singapore's free port trade was at Singapore River for 150 years. Fort Canning hill (centre) was home to its ancient and early colonial rulers.
British evacuation in 1945 after the Japanese surrender. Kallang Airport's control tower near the city has been conserved.
Singapore thrived as an entrepôt. In the 1960s, bumboats were used to transport cargoes and supplies between nearshore ships and Singapore River.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Istana is the official residence and office of the President, as well as the working office of the Prime Minister.
The Supreme Court (left) and the Parliament House (right) where the Singapore Parliament convenes.
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at the 2017 G20 meeting in Germany. Since 2010, Singapore has often been invited to participate in G20 processes.
In 2007, Singaporean troopers were deployed in Afghanistan as part of a multinational coalition.
Republic of Singapore Air Force Black Knights perform at the Singapore Air Show.
Speakers' Corner in Chinatown provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area usually restricted in other parts of the island.
An outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways
Singapore Botanic Gardens is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – one of three gardens in the world, and the only tropical garden, to be recognised as such.
Singapore Airlines, the country's flag carrier, celebrated the nation's 2015 Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380.
A proportional representation of Singapore exports, 2019
The Merlion, the official mascot of Singapore
The world's first urban congestion-pricing scheme started in the city centre in 1975 and was fully automated by Electronic Road Pricing in 1998.
Chinese (East Asian), Malay (Southeast Asian), and Indian (South Asian) women in Singapore, circa 1890. To promote racial harmony among the three races, a unique Racial Harmony Day is celebrated on 21 July every year.
Singapore Management University is one of six autonomous universities in the city-state
National University Hospital is the second largest hospital in the city, serving one million patients yearly.
Ornate details on top of Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown district, Singapore's oldest Hindu temple since 1827
The National Gallery Singapore oversees the world's largest public collection of Singapore and Southeast Asian art
Lau Pa Sat hawker centre in the financial district. Satay cart-stalls roll in after dusk, on a side street.
Joseph Schooling is a gold medalist and Olympic record holder at the Rio 2016 Games – 100 m butterfly.
The Ministry of Communications and Information oversees the development of Infocomm, Media and the arts.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Speakers' Corner at Hong Lim Park provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area for Singaporeans often restricted in other parts of the country.

Parameswara declared independence from Majapahit and mounted a Lion Throne, thus claiming the Srivijaya Empire.

Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri) kingdom, later unified as Kediri kingdom

Kediri Kingdom

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Hindu-Buddhist in Indonesia Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222.

Hindu-Buddhist in Indonesia Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222.

Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri) kingdom, later unified as Kediri kingdom
Airlangga's embodiment statue as Lord Vishnu riding Garuda, found in Belahan, collection of Trowulan Museum, East Java.
Statue of Vishnu. Kediri, East Java, circa 12th–13th century
Srivijaya and Kediri around 12th to early 13th century AD
Vajrasattva. Eastern Java, Kediri period, 10th–11th century CE, bronze, 19.5 x 11.5 cm
Ganesha and a fragment of a temple at the residency in Kediri, 1866-1867

The name "Daha" was used in later Majapahit period, as the seat of rival court of Trowulan.

Philippines

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Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit empire.

The statue of Tribhuwanottungadewi, queen of Majapahit, depicted as Parvati

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi

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The statue of Tribhuwanottungadewi, queen of Majapahit, depicted as Parvati

Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, known in her regnal name Tribhuwannottunggadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, also known as Dyah Gitarja, was a Javanese queen regnant and the third Majapahit monarch, reigning from 1328 to 1350.