A report on Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

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Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Borobudur

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9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Candi Borobudur viewed from the northwest. The monument was mentioned in the Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscriptions.
Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
Exposed Buddha image within the stupas of Borobudur upper terraces
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday
Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was deserted.
Borobudur's main stupa in mid 19th-century, a wooden deck had been installed above the main stupa.
Borobudur in 1872.
Terrace on the temple of Borobudur 1913
Borobudur after Van Erp's restoration in 1911. Note the reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on top of the main stupa (now dismantled).
The Unfinished Buddha from the main stupa of Borobudur at Karmawibhangga Museum, to which the Buddhists give offerings, along with the main stupa's chhatra on its back.
Embedding concrete and PVC pipe to improve Borobudur's drainage system during the 1973 restoration
A 1968 Indonesian stamp promoting restoration of Borobudur
Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the top platform
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
Location of Borobudur relative to Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
Borobudur is surrounded by mountains, including twin volcanoes Mount Merbabu (left) and Merapi (right)
Tourists in Borobudur
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
Aerial view of Borobudur, it took the form of a step pyramid and mandala plan
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head, respectively
Stairs of Borobudur through arches of Kala
A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall
The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on Borobudur wall
The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into a burning house.
Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Prince Siddhartha Gautama
Prince Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.
A relief of Jataka story of giant turtle that saving drowned sailors.
A relief of the Gandavyuha story from Borobudur 2nd level north wall.
A Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra
Head from a Borobudur Buddha statue in Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam.
Headless Buddha statue in Borobudur. Since its discovery, numbers of heads have been stolen and installed in museums abroad.
Lion gate guardian
Sukarno and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visiting Borobudur in June 1950.
Emblem of Central Java displaying Borobudur.
Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur.
Musicians performing a musical ensemble, probably the early form of gamelan.
The Apsara of Borobudur.
The scene of King and Queen with their subjects.
One relief on a corridor wall.
A weapon, probably the early form of keris.
A detailed carved relief stone.
Tara holding a Chamara
Surasundari holding a lotus
Close up of a relief
Great Departure from Lalitavistara
Dancer dancing to orchestra of cymbals, chime cymbals and flutes.
World Heritage inscription of Borobudur Temple
The procedures signage for visiting Borobudur Temple
The inscription of Borobudur restoration in 1973 by the former Indonesian president Soeharto
The scattered parts of Borobudur Temple at Karmawibhangga Museum. People still can't locate their original positions.
A Buddha statue inside a stupa

The only old Javanese manuscript that hints the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, a Buddhist scholar of Majapahit court, in 1365.

Although popularly believed that the East Javanese statue of Prajnaparamita was the personification of Ken Dedes, queen of Singhasari, other recent opinion suggested that it was probably the deified personification of Gayatri Rajapatni instead.

Gayatri Rajapatni

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Gayatri Rajapatni (c.

Gayatri Rajapatni (c.

Although popularly believed that the East Javanese statue of Prajnaparamita was the personification of Ken Dedes, queen of Singhasari, other recent opinion suggested that it was probably the deified personification of Gayatri Rajapatni instead.

undefined1276—1350) was the queen consort of Majapahit's founder and first king Kertarajasa Jayawardhana, and also the mother of Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, the queen regnal of Majapahit.

The territory of Sunda Kingdom

Sunda Kingdom

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Sundanese Hindu kingdom located in the western portion of the island of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java.

Sundanese Hindu kingdom located in the western portion of the island of Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten, Jakarta, West Java, and the western part of Central Java.

The territory of Sunda Kingdom
The word Sunda written in Sundanese script
Batutulis inscription (dated 1533), in Bogor, commemorate the great King of Sunda Sri Baduga Maharaja (rule 1482-1521).
The Sundanese royal party arrived at the port of Hujung Galuh by Junk Sassana, a type of Javanese junk, which also incorporates Chinese techniques, such as using iron nails alongside wooden dowels, the construction of watertight bulkhead, and addition of central rudder.
Sundanese traditional house with Julang Ngapak roof in Garut circa 1920s. It was built on poles and having a thatched roof, as described in a 12th-century Chinese source.
Old map of Java still thought that land of Sunda in the west is separated from the rest of Java island. Here the capital of Sunda is called Daio which refer to Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran
The ruin of Bojongmenje Hindu temple in Priangan highlands, estimated was built in the 7th century.
Citarum River separates Sunda and Galuh
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
Sanghyang Tapak inscription
One of Kawali inscriptions
Statue of a Hindu god from Talaga near Kuningan, West Java, dated from the Sunda Kingdom.
Keraton Kasepuhan of Cirebon. By 1482, the Sunda kingdom lost its important eastern port of Cirebon.
The port of Sunda Kelapa, the cradle of Jakarta. For centuries it was the royal port of Sunda Kingdom serving the capital Dayeuh Pakuan Pajajaran 60 kilometres inland to the south until it fell to Demak and Cirebon forces in 1527.
The Port of Banten in the 16th century. The Islamic Sultanate of Banten was responsible for the demise of Hindu Sunda Kingdom, and supplant it as the dominant polity in western parts of Java in the following centuries.
Hindu Brahmin's ritual objects, including bronze bell and holy water container from Kawali, the historic capital of Galuh Kingdom.
Location of Pakuan Pajajaran copied from book "Kabudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran" Part 2", 2005
Makuta Binokasih Sanghyang Paké, the royal crown of Sunda kingdom. After the fall of Pajajaran to Banten, the crown was evacuated to Sumedang Larang and become their regalia.
A Sundanese woman retrieving rice from a leuit, Sundanese economy mainly rely on rice agriculture
The statue of Shiva Mahadeva from Cibodas village, Cicalengka Subdistrict, Bandung Regency, West Java. Possibly from the Sunda Kingdom period 8th to 9th century.
A bronze statue of Hindu god Shiva discovered in Talaga near Kuningan, West Java. Sunda kingdom period, circa 14th century.
Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between Portuguese Kingdom and Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta.
Lontar palm-leaf manuscript written in Sundanese

The specific mention of Majapahit, Malacca and Demak, allow us to date the writing of the story in the 15th century, probably the latter part of this century, or the early 16th century at the latest.

Modern artist's impression of Jayanagara

Jayanegara

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Modern artist's impression of Jayanagara
Bajang Ratu gate in Trowulan palace compound

Jayanegara or Jayanagara (formal regnal name Sri Maharaja Wiralandagopala Sri Sundarapandya Dewa Adhiswara, or Sri Sundarapandyadevadhisvara Vikramottungadeva, also known as Kala Gemet), Prince of Kediri in 1295, reigned from 1309 to 1328, was a Javanese emperor and the second monarch of Majapahit empire.

Brunei

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Country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

Country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

Brunei territorial losses from 1400 to 1890
Boundaries of Brunei (green) since 1890
British adventurer James Brooke negotiating with the Sultan of Brunei, which led to the signing of the Treaty of Labuan, 1846
Ahmad Tajuddin, the 27th Sultan of Brunei, with members of his court in April 1941, eight months before the Japanese invaded Brunei
Nagato, Tone, Yamato and Musashi in Brunei Bay in October 1944
Major-General Wootten of the Australian 9th Division with Lieutenant-General Masao Baba (signing) of the Japanese 37th Division at the surrender ceremony at Labuan on 10 September 1945
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III
British soldiers in the British protectorate of Brunei on guard in the Seria oilfield, January 1963
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (right) in 2004
A topographic and geographic limits map of Brunei
Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei.
Brunei's Sultan and Foreign Minister Hassanal Bolkiah meets with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2015
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah with Indonesian President Joko Widodo, 6 October 2017
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah and Vladimir Putin during APEC 2000
Headscarves called tudong are compulsory for Brunei's Muslim schoolgirls
Brunei International Airport Mosque
A proportional representation of Brunei exports, 2019
BIMP-EAGA meeting in the office of Brunei Prime Minister on 25 April 2013. From left: Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Malaysian Representative and Filipino President Benigno Aquino III. Brunei is part of the BIMP-EAGA, a subregional economic co-operation initiative in Southeast Asia.
Royal Brunei Boeing 787 Dreamliner at London Heathrow Airport.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque at night.
Royal Regalia Museum
Nagato, Tone, Yamato and Musashi in Brunei Bay in October 1944

In the 14th century, the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Prapanca in 1365, mentioned Barune as the constituent state of Hindu Majapahit, which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor.

Surabaya

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Capital city of the Indonesian province of East Java and the second-largest city in Indonesia, after Jakarta.

Capital city of the Indonesian province of East Java and the second-largest city in Indonesia, after Jakarta.

Coat of Arms of Soerabaia (old spelling of Surabaya) during Dutch colonial era, granted in 1931.
Dutch residenthuis (resident house) along the water in Surabaya
Red Bridge area from the air in the 1920s
Map of Surabaya from an 1897 English travel guide
The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby on the spot where he was killed by pro-independence Indonesian soldiers during the Battle of Surabaya on 31 October 1945
Outskirts of Surabaya
Panorama of Central Surabaya in 2019.
Panorama of Western Surabaya from city's outskirts in 2017.
Another view of Tunjungan district
Bungkul Park, one of the most visited parks in Surabaya.
Surabaya Mangrove Edu-Tourism Centre in Wonorejo District, East Surabaya.
Surabaya city hall
Districts of Surabaya.
The metropolitan area in 2014, seen from the International Space Station, the brightest section are Surabaya and its metropolitan areas
Hadhrami immigrants in Surabaya, circa 1920s
Ludruk is a native Surabaya-genre play (theatre).
Downtown Central Surabaya
Central business district in Western Surabaya
Plaza Tunjungan
Cheng Hoo (Zheng He) Mosque, Surabaya
Majapahit Hotel building is a cultural heritage of Surabaya
Modern architecture of Surabaya Mangrove Edu-Tourism Centre in Wonorejo District, East Surabaya.
Jalesveva Jayamahe Monument, waterfront statue of Northern Surabaya
Ujung passenger Port
Pedicabs (becak) in the street in Surabaya
Suramadu bridge at night.
Airlangga University (UNAIR) main entrance.
Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology (ITS) main library.
Petra Christian High School
Rujak cingur, specialty of Surabaya.
Ultras choreography of Persebaya.
Church of the Birth of Our Lady, oldest church in Surabaya
An Eastern Orthodox Church congregation
Tian Ti Pagoda, an iconic Buddhist temple
Sanggar Agung, a Chinese folk temple
Pura Jagatnatha Perak, a Hindu temple
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue
Mosque in Surabaya
Handelstraat (Red Bridge) 1930s
Kya-Kya or Kembang Jepun, the city's Chinatown
Jembatan Merah (Red Bridge). This bridge was named after the tragedy of The war of Surabaya when groups of nationalists were bombed by the British army causing significant casualties. It was said that due to the amount of blood, the whole bridge appeared red. The fences are always painted red by Surabayan government to commemorate the incident.
Old town Surabaya showing the distinctive old European building from colonial era.
Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat) tomb. One of the sacred pilgrimage site of Wali Sanga
Heroes monument. This monument represent an upside-down nail: if you step on it, it will fight you back.
Research centre
The old building of Surabaya Gubeng railway station. The new modern building has been built on the opposite side of this.
Tunjungan district at night
Suramadu bridge as seen from Madura's side. The skyscrappers are distinctively shown.
Suroboyo Bus
Central Surabaya
West Surabaya
Traditional Surabayan snack, sold in Ampel religious pilgrimage site.
Inner view of Surabaya's oldest church

In the late 15th and 16th centuries, Surabaya grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power as well as a port in eastern Java, probably under the Majapahit empire.

Ken Arok

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The founder and first ruler of Singhasari (also spelled Singosari), a medieval Hindu kingdom in East Java.

The founder and first ruler of Singhasari (also spelled Singosari), a medieval Hindu kingdom in East Java.

He is considered the founder of the Rajasa dynasty of the Singhasari and Majapahit line of monarchs.

Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade networks in the Indian Ocean

Thalassocracy

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State with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea, or a seaborne empire.

State with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea, or a seaborne empire.

Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade networks in the Indian Ocean
Territories of the Genoese Republic (economic influence areas shown in pink) around the Mediterranean & Black Sea coasts.
Main trade routes of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires.
Fresco from the Minoan town at Akrotiri showing the port town, the harbor, and ships. Minoan civilization is an example of an ancient thalassocracy. Their fleets dominated the Aegean, colonizing many locations, but not moving inland. This topic is covered under Political economy, which falls under Political science

Examples of this were the Phoenician states of Tyre, Sidon and Carthage, and the Italian maritime republics of Venice and Genoa of the Mediterranean; the Chola dynasty of India and the Austronesian states of Srivijaya, the Omani Empire and Majapahit of Maritime Southeast Asia.

Location (red) of Lombok

Lombok

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Island in West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia.

Island in West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia.

Location (red) of Lombok
The Sasak chiefs of Lombok who allied with the Dutch to resist Balinese occupation.
A 75 carat diamond on exhibit at the Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden. It was taken, together with 230 kg of gold, 7000 kg of silver and three chests of jewels and precious stones from the royal palace of Lombok after a Dutch invasion in 1894. Only part of the treasure was handed back to Indonesia in 1977.
Dutch intervention in Lombok and Karangasem against the Balinese in 1894.
President Joko Widodo examining the earthquake damage.
Mount Rinjani seen from Gili Air
Lake Segara Anak on top of Mt. Rinjani
Traditional Sasak houses.
The oldest mosque dating from 1634 in Bayan.
Pura Meru in Mataram, a Hindu temple built in 1720.
Buddhist Temple near Tanjung on the north coast.
Indigenous Sasak dancers performing traditional Lombok wardance c. 1880
Local Sasak children (c. 1997)
One of the unique traditional crafts from Lombok
The Gili Islands
Manta ray Biorock reef in Gili Islands
Mawun Beach
Harbour of Labuhan Lombok
Lombok "Zainuddin Abdul Madjid International" Airport
Seger Beach, overlooked by the Mandalika International Street Circuit

The 14th century Majapahit manuscript Nagarakretagama canto 14 mentioned "Lombok Mirah" as one of island identified under Majapahit suzerainty.

Three-masted Javanese jong in Banten, 1610.

Djong (ship)

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Type of ancient sailing ship originating from Java, Indonesia that was widely used by Javanese and later Malay sailors.

Type of ancient sailing ship originating from Java, Indonesia that was widely used by Javanese and later Malay sailors.

Three-masted Javanese jong in Banten, 1610.
A Javanese sailor.
Muria strait during Sultan Trenggana reign (1521–1546). In 1657 this strait has been narrowed or disappeared.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from ca. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Examine the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
Hybrid Sino-Southeast Asian junk. The flag featuring crescent moons suggests that this particular junk hailed from one of the Islamic sultanates of Indonesia.
A four-masted ship being followed by a Portuguese vessel, in Nuño García de Toreno’s map of 1522. This scene likely depicts a junk encountered near Polvoreira.
A 40-ton jong from Banten (right) with 2 sails and a bowsprit sail, showing the bridge (opening in the below deck where goods are stored).
A portion of Catalan atlas depicting Indonesian archipelago. At the left a five-masted inchi (copying error of juchi, or junk, from Javanese jong). At the center is illa iana (error of illa iaua, the island of Java), which is ruled by a queen (probably Tribhuwana, reigning from 1328 to 1350). To the right are other Indonesian islands.
A portion of Catalan atlas depicting a five-masted Javanese jong in the Arabian sea, 1375.
Cropped portion of Indian Ocean in the Miller Atlas, showing 2 jongs, one is a 6-masted ship viewed from aft, the other is a 7-masted ship. The ships are probably drawn as a reference to Pati Unus' flagship, owing to the number of sails and crescent moon symbol which represent Islam.
Cropped portion of China Sea, showing six and three-masted jong. It is probably referencing to large Majapahit jong of the 14–15th centuries or the single Pati Unus junk of 1512–1513. The lack of crescent moon symbol indicated that these jongs must be hailed from the non-muslim area in Java, probably owned by the kingdom of Majapahit or Sunda.
Also showing a portion of the China Sea, this one is a 5-masted jong, probably from Demak Sultanate in Central Java.
A four-masted ship being followed by a Portuguese vessel, in Nuño García de Toreno’s map of 1522. This scene likely depicts a junk encountered near Polvoreira.

Javanese kingdoms such as Majapahit, Demak Sultanate, and Kalinyamat Sultanate used these vessels as warships, but still predominantly as transport vessels.