A report on Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

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According to the Nagarakretagama, Bubat square is located close to the north of Trowulan Majapahit capital city, probably somewhere near Wringin Lawang gate or Brahu temple

Battle of Bubat

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According to the Nagarakretagama, Bubat square is located close to the north of Trowulan Majapahit capital city, probably somewhere near Wringin Lawang gate or Brahu temple
The Sundanese royal party arrived at the port of Hujung Galuh by Junk Sassana, a type of Javanese junk, which also incorporates Chinese techniques, such as using iron nails alongside wooden dowels, the construction of watertight bulkhead, and addition of central rudder.
The map of Trowulan, the Bubat square suggested was located on northern parts of city

The Battle of Bubat also known as Pasunda Bubat is the battle between the Sundanese royal family and Majapahit army that took place in Bubat square on the northern part of Trowulan (Majapahit capital city) in 1279 Saka or 1357 CE.

Kingdom of Singapore, with ruins of an old wall still visible in 1825 and marked on this map.

Kingdom of Singapura

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Indianised Malay Hindu-Buddhist kingdom thought to have been established during the early history of Singapore upon its main island Pulau Ujong, then also known as Temasek, from 1299 until its fall in 1398.

Indianised Malay Hindu-Buddhist kingdom thought to have been established during the early history of Singapore upon its main island Pulau Ujong, then also known as Temasek, from 1299 until its fall in 1398.

Kingdom of Singapore, with ruins of an old wall still visible in 1825 and marked on this map.
The 1573 map by Egnazio Danti showing Cingatola as an island located on the tip of Regio di Malaca.
Historic Indosphere cultural influence zone of Greater India for transmission of elements of Indian elements such as the honorific titles, naming of people, naming of places, mottos of organisations and educational institutes as well as adoption of Hinduism, Buddhism, Indian architecture, martial arts, Indian music and dance, traditional Indian clothing, and Indian cuisine, a process which has also been aided by the ongoing historic expansion of Indian diaspora.
Statue of Sang Nila Utama at the Raffles' Landing Site.
Depiction of Malay warriors of ancient Singapura on a relief in Fort Canning Park, Singapore.
A depiction of the legendary strongman Badang lifting the Singapore Stone at National Day Parade 2016.
Carved mural on a wall in Fort Canning Park depicting activities which may have occurred in 14th-15th century Singapore.
An artist's impression of Parameswara, the last king of Singapura.
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, displayed in the Singapore History Gallery of the National Museum of Singapore

It was however claimed by two regional powers at that time, Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south.

Kublai Khan's fleet passing through the Indonesian archipelago, by Sir Henry Yule (1871)

Mongol invasion of Java

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Island in modern Indonesia, with 20,000 to 30,000 soldiers.

Island in modern Indonesia, with 20,000 to 30,000 soldiers.

Kublai Khan's fleet passing through the Indonesian archipelago, by Sir Henry Yule (1871)
19th-century studio portrait of a native Javanese warrior with an iron kris-tipped spear (a tombak). The Javanese forces consisted mostly of lightly armored troops like this.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Yuan naval armada consisted of this kind of ships.
21st century view of Brantas river in Kediri.
3-masted Javanese jong in Banten, this illustration is from 1610.

After a fierce campaign, Kediri surrendered, but the Yuan forces were betrayed by their erstwhile ally, Majapahit, under Raden Wijaya.

The main Champa kingdom before 1306 (yellow) lay along the coast of present-day southern Vietnam. To the north (blue) lay Đại Việt; to the west (red), the Khmer Empire.

Champa

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Comtemporary central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD until 1832, when it was annexed by the Vietnamese Empire under its emperor Minh Mạng.

Comtemporary central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD until 1832, when it was annexed by the Vietnamese Empire under its emperor Minh Mạng.

The main Champa kingdom before 1306 (yellow) lay along the coast of present-day southern Vietnam. To the north (blue) lay Đại Việt; to the west (red), the Khmer Empire.
This Cham head of Shiva was made of electrum around 800. It decorated a kosa, or metal sleeve fitted to a liṅgam. One can recognise Shiva by the tall chignon hairstyle and by the third eye in the middle of his forehead.
The main Champa kingdom before 1306 (yellow) lay along the coast of present-day southern Vietnam. To the north (blue) lay Đại Việt; to the west (red), the Khmer Empire.
Crown of Champa in 7th and 8th century. (Museum of Vietnamese History)
Epigraph of king Jaya Paramesvaravarman II (r. 1220–1254), the liberator of Champa from Khmer rule.
Depiction of a couple of highland man and Cham lady in the Boxer Codex from 1590
Supposedly zenith of Champa territorial expansion during the reign of Che Bong Nga (r. 1360-1390)
1801 map of Southeast Asia by John Cary showing Panduranga Champa (Tsiompa)
11th-century sculpture depicting the court of Champa with king, court officials, and servants. Museum of Cham Sculpture.
1770s map of Panduranga Champa (Ciampa)
Champa (ca. 11th century) at its greatest extent
Closeup of the inscription in Cham script on the Po Nagar stele, 965. The stele describes feats by the Champa kings.
9th-century Dong Duong (Indrapura) sculpture describes the early life of Prince Siddhārtha Gautama (who is sitting on a mule).
Mỹ Sơn is the site of the largest collection of Cham ruins.
Duong Long ruins in Bình Định province.
Champa ladies dance at Poklong Garai stupa in Phan Rang.
A Vietnamese Shiva figure made by sandstone in Vong La temple, Hanoi, dated 12th century
Sculpture of Cham mounted archers on chariots. {{circa}} 11th–13th century.
Depiction of a Cham–Khmer naval battle, stone relief at the Bayon.
12th-century Champa marines wore various types of armor.
Bas reliefs from the Bayon Temple depicting battle scene between Cham (wearing helmets) and Khmer troops
Remain of My Son E1 temples which was constructed by King Prakāśadharma (r. 653–687). The complex barely survived the Vietnam War.
Đồng Dương (Indrapura) Buddha statue, 9th century AD. Museum of Vietnamese History
Phu Loc tower, a Cham kalan archetype, Binh Dinh, constructed in late 13th century. A remain of Vijaya.
Bas relief of animals and beasties from Tra Kieu, c. 900-1100. Museum of Cham Sculpture.
Statue of Lady Po Nagar

Champa also had close trade and cultural relations with the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya and later with the Majapahit of the Malay Archipelago, its easternmost trade relations being with the kingdoms of Butuan and Sulu in the Philippines.

Dara Petak

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Dara Petak or Dara Pethak, also known in her formal name as Indreswari, was the consort of King Kertarajasa Jayawardhana, the founder of Majapahit kingdom.

High relief at Monas in Jakarta, depicting Gajah Mada taking his Palapa oath.

Palapa oath

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High relief at Monas in Jakarta, depicting Gajah Mada taking his Palapa oath.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite was named after the Palapa oath.

The Palapa oath (Sumpah Palapa) was an oath taken by Gajah Mada, a 14th-century Prime Minister of the Javanese Majapahit Empire described in the Pararaton (Book of Kings).

Jayakatwang

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The king of short lived second Kingdom of Kediri (also known as Gelang-gelang Kingdom) of Java, after his overthrow of Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari.

The king of short lived second Kingdom of Kediri (also known as Gelang-gelang Kingdom) of Java, after his overthrow of Kertanegara, the last king of Singhasari.

Raden Wijaya would later turn against the Mongols and found Majapahit, a great empire centered around in Java.

A modern artist's impression of Parameswara.

Parameswara (king)

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The last king of Singapura and the founder of Malacca.

The last king of Singapura and the founder of Malacca.

A modern artist's impression of Parameswara.
Map of 15th century Malacca and its contemporaries.

The king fled the island kingdom after a Majapahit naval invasion in 1398 and founded his new stronghold on the mouth of Bertam river in 1402.

Pararaton

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Javanese historical chronicle written in Kawi (Old Javanese).

Javanese historical chronicle written in Kawi (Old Javanese).

The comparatively short text of 32 folio-size pages (1126 lines) contains the history of the kings of Singhasari and Majapahit in eastern Java.

Bali Kingdom

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Series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.

Series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia.

The maximum extent of Balinese Kingdom of Gelgel in the mid-16th century
Stupika which contains Buddhist votive tablets, 8th-century Bali. The bell-shaped stupas similar to Central Javanese Buddhist art.
The Belanjong pillar in Sanur (914), one of the earliest inscription in Bali
Gunung Kawi rock-cut candi shrines demonstrate similar temple style of Java during the late Mataram period.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The gate in Gelgel, the old royal capital of Bali.
Map of Balinese nine kingdoms, circa 1900
The Raja of Buleleng killing himself with 400 followers, in an 1849 puputan against the Dutch.
Dewa Agung of Klungkung in 1908.

Because of its proximity and close cultural relations with the neighbouring Java island during the Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist period, the history of Bali Kingdom was often intertwined and heavily influenced by its Javanese counterparts, from Mataram c. 9th century to Majapahit empire in 13th to 15th centuries.