A report on Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

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Ornamented kelulus from Batavia, 1733.

Kelulus

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Type of rowing boat used in Indonesia.

Type of rowing boat used in Indonesia.

Ornamented kelulus from Batavia, 1733.

The earliest report of kelulus is from Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai (Chronicle of the Kings of Pasai) of the 14th century, in which they are mentioned as one type of vessel used by the Majapahit empire.

Raden Patah

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First sultan of Demak Sultanate.

First sultan of Demak Sultanate.

He became sultan in 1475, but the sultanate remained a vassal of Majapahit Empire until 1478.

Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi

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The princess of the Sunda Kingdom in Western Java.

The princess of the Sunda Kingdom in Western Java.

According to the Pararaton or Book of Kings, she was supposed to marry Hayam Wuruk, the new young king of Majapahit who had a great desire to take her as his queen.

The kris consists of three parts; blade (wilah), hilt (hulu) and sheath (warangka)

Kris

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Asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron .

Asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron .

The kris consists of three parts; blade (wilah), hilt (hulu) and sheath (warangka)
Kris depicted on 9th century Borobudur bas-relief.
Kris as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Kris blacksmith's workshop depicted in 15th century Candi Sukuh.
The Kris of Knaud (1342 AD) from Majapahit period, exhibited at Tropenmuseum, Netherland
A kris of Majapahit from Majapahit era (13th–16th CE), in the collection of the Rijksmuseum, Netherland
Varieties of Javanese keris, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
A lithograph depiction of kris blacksmith in Java, Dutch East Indies circa 1854.
Keris-making in TMII, Jakarta.
Kris worn by Yogyakarta Sultan's palace guard.
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The blade has thirteen luk.
The shiny nickelous pattern (pamor) on dark iron background visible on kris' blade.
Richly decorated Balinese kris hilt coated with gold, adorned with rubies.
Keris sheath of Ladrang Surakarta style.
Various ways of wearing kris in Javanese culture.
Barong dance performance with kris-wielding dancers and Rangda in Bali.
19th-century studio portrait of a native Javanese warrior with an iron kris-tipped spear (a tombak)
The Kris Taming Sari as seen third from the left, among the rest of the Perak royal regalia, 1907.
Javanese kris and scabbard displayed in Museum Volkenkunde, Leiden, the Netherlands.
Weapon of Java: Keris, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
Gusti Ngurah Ketut Djelantik, Lord of Buleleng, Bali (c. 1870), wore kris as a symbol of power and authority.
A Javanese man in court dress, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
A Javanese chief, in his ordinary dress, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
A Javanese man in war dress, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
A Javanese man of the lower class, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1817).
Sultan Hamengkubuwono VI, King of Yogyakarta Sultanate (1855-1877), dressed in royal majesty attire including his kris.
Portrait of Prince Diponegoro with kris, one of Indonesia's national heroes from Java, c. 1835.
Wayang kulit depicting Prabu Pandu Dewanata with his kris.
Wayang Klithik (Flat Wooden Puppet) figure of Damar Wulan with his kris, Tropenmuseum Collectons, before 1933
thumb| Wayang Golek Menak in Java, Jayengrana with his kris, a collection of Tropenmuseum, Netherland. before 2003.
Prime Minister of Malaysia Ismail Sabri Yaakob with Indonesian Defense Minister Prabowo Subianto while receiving his honorary visit at the Wisma Pertahanan on 30 October 2021.
Flag of Mataram Sultanate
Kris in UMNO flag
Emblem of Riau
Emblem of West Kalimantan
Emblem of Jambi
Emblem of Luwu Regency
Old emblem of Siam
Emblem of Selangor
Emblem of Terengganu
Flag of the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
Flag of Kelantan
Emblem of Riau Islands

However, Raffles' (1817) study of the Candi Sukuh states that the kris recognized today came into existence around 1361 AD in the kingdom of Majapahit, East Java.

The statue of Amoghapasa on top of the inscription, sent from Bhumijava (Java) to Suvarnabhumi (Sumatra).

Pamalayu

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Diplomatic and military expeditionary force sent by the Javanese King Kertanegara of Singhasari to conquer the Sumatran Melayu Kingdom.

Diplomatic and military expeditionary force sent by the Javanese King Kertanegara of Singhasari to conquer the Sumatran Melayu Kingdom.

The statue of Amoghapasa on top of the inscription, sent from Bhumijava (Java) to Suvarnabhumi (Sumatra).

However following his demise by Jayakatwang, princess Dara Petak would later be married to Kertanegara's successor, Raden Wijaya of Majapahit.

Buddha in an open stupa and the main stupa of Borobudur in the background.

Candi of Indonesia

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Hindu or Buddhist temple in Indonesia, mostly built during the Zaman Hindu-Buddha or "Hindu-Buddhist period" between circa the 4th and 15th centuries.

Hindu or Buddhist temple in Indonesia, mostly built during the Zaman Hindu-Buddha or "Hindu-Buddhist period" between circa the 4th and 15th centuries.

Buddha in an open stupa and the main stupa of Borobudur in the background.
Prambanan temple compound. The towering candi prasada (temple towers) are believed to represent the cosmic Mount Meru, the abode of gods.
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
The Shiva temple Candi Prambanan consist of three ascending realms, temple's base (Bhurloka), body (Bhurvaloka) and roof (Svarloka).
Bima temple, one of Dieng temples. It was one of the earliest temples in Java.
Interlocking andesite stone blocks forming a corbeling arch in Borobudur.
Red brick Jabung temple, dated from Majapahit period.
Traces of worn off vajralepa plaster on Sari's relief.
Kala-makara on the portal of Borobudur gates, Kala's head on top of the portal and makaras flanking either sides.
Central Javanese linga-yoni with spout decorated and supported by nāga serpent, Yogyakarta 9th century.
Rama killing evil giant, bas-relief of Ramayana on Prambanan temple, Central Java style.
Hanuman battling enemy, bas-relief of Ramayana on Penataran temple, East Java style.
Kinnara (male), Kinnari (female), Apsara, and Devata guarding Kalpataru, the divine tree of life. 8th century Pawon temple, Java, Indonesia.
A Bodhisattva flanked by two Taras in Sewu temple.
A Devata flanked by two apsaras in Prambanan temple.
One of dvarapala statues guarding Sewu temple.
Lion guardian of Borobudur.
Bell-shaped perforated stupas of Borobudur.
Prambanan vajra pinnacle.
Map showing the location of the main sites of the so-called "Indonesian classical period" or Hindu-Buddhist period. Black dots represent Hindu sites and red dots Buddhist sites.
Cangkuang, Garut West Java
Arjuna group of Dieng temples
Gedong Songo III
Borobudur
Sambisari
The Prambanan temple complex
The gate of Ratu Boko Palace compound.
Candi Barong.
Singosari
Penataran
Surowono
Jawi
Candi Brahu, Trowulan
Gunung Kawi, Bali
Biaro Bahal, North Sumatra
Blandongan, Batujaya, 2nd to 12th century, Karawang, West Java
Gumpung, Muaro Jambi, 7th-12th century, Jambi
Bojongmenje, 7th century, Rancaekek, Bandung, West Java
Cangkuang, 8th century, Leles, Garut, West Java
Candi Bima, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Puntadewa, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Arjuna, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Srikandi, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Gatotkaca, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Semar, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Gedong Songo, 7th-8th century, Ungaran
Gunung Wukir, 8th century, Muntilan
Badut temple, 8th century, Malang
Kalasan temple, 8th century, near Prambanan
Sari temple, 8th century
Lumbung, 8th century
Sewu, 8th century, Central Java
Bubrah, 8th century, part of Sewu Mandala
Gana temple, 8th century, part of Sewu Mandala
Ngawen temple, 8th century, Muntilan, Central Java
Mendut temple, 8th century, near Borobudur
Candi Gebang, 8th-9th century, Yogyakarta
Asu Temple, 8th-9th century, Sengi, Magelang
Lumbung Sengi temple, 8th-9th century, Sengi, Sawangan, Magelang
Pawon temple, 9th century, between Borobudur and Mendut
Borobudur, 9th century, Magelang, Central Java, world's largest Buddhist monument
Plaosan, 9th century
Plaosan Kidul, 9th century
Prambanan, 9th century, the largest Hindu Temple in Indonesia
Sojiwan, 9th century, near Prambanan
Banyunibo, 9th century
Sambisari, 9th century
Barong temple, 9th century
Kimpulan, 9th-10th century, Kaliurang, Yogyakarta
Morangan temple, 9th-10th century, Ngemplak, Sleman, Yogyakarta
Merak temple, 10th century, Klaten, Central Java
Ijo Temple, 10th-11th century, Yogyakarta
Belahan temple, fountain and pool, 11th century, Mount Penanggungan, Gempol, Pasuruan, East Java
Candi Gunung Gangsir, 11th century, Pasuruan, East Java
Candi Mengening, 11th century, Tampaksiring, Bali
Gunung Kawi, 11th century, Tampak Siring, Bali
Muara Takus, 11th-12th century, Riau
Bahal temple, 11th-13th century, North Sumatra
Penataran, 12th-15th century, Blitar
Kidal, 13th century, Malang
Jago, 13th century, Malang
Jawi, 13th century, Prigen, Pasuruan
Candi Plumbangan, 14th century, Blitar, East Java
Simping temple, 14th century, Sumberjati, Blitar, East Java
Candi Gayatri, 14th century, Boyolangu, Tulungagung, East Java
Brahu, Trowulan, 14th century
Candi Wringin Lawang, Trowulan, 14th century
Bajang Ratu, Trowulan, 14th century
Candi Tikus, Trowulan, 14th century
Candi Rimbi, Jombang, 14th century
Surawana temple, Kediri, 14th century
Jabung, Paiton, Probolinggo, 14th century
Candi Pari, 14th century, Porong, Sidoarjo
Sukuh, 15th century, Karanganyar
Ceto, 15th century, Karanganyar

Examples of non-temple candis are the Bajang Ratu and Wringin Lawang gates of Majapahit.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods

Mataram Kingdom

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Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
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The Plaosan temple with Mount Merapi in the background.
Canggal inscription (732), created by King Sanjaya.
The 9th century Central Javanese gold and silver image of the Mahayana Buddhist goddess Tara
The construction of Kalasan temple was mentioned in Kalasan inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran.
The construction of Manjusrigrha temple was mentioned in Manjusrigrha inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran and completed during Dharanindra reign.
The construction of Mendut temple was initiated and completed during the reign of King Indra (r. 780–800), a valiant king of Shailendra dynasty.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (circa 900 CE) from the Laguna de Bay area in Luzon, the Philippines. The inscription invokes the "chief" (pamegat) of "Mdang" as one of the authorities in the clearing of a debt owed to the "chief and commander" (pamegat senapati) of "Tundun".
The massive stone stupa-mandala of Borobudur was completed in 825 during the reign of King Samaratungga.
Ratu Boko, a fortified hill, probably referred in Shivagrha inscription as the location of a battle.
Shivagrha inscription dated 778 Saka (856 CE), one of the historical source dated from the Mataram Kingdom.
Ijo, a 10th-century Hindu temple located on Ijo Hill Southeast from Prambanan
A battle scene depicted on a bas-relief in Prambanan.
Bubrah temple
Sajiwan Buddhist temple, linked to Nini Haji Rakryan Sanjiwana or Sri Kahulunnan
Borobudur ship, a ship used by Javanese people for sailing as far as Ghana.
Towering Merapi volcano overlooking Prambanan prasad tower. It was suggested that Merapi volcanic eruption had devastated Mataram capital, forcing them to relocate in the east.
Sambisari temple buried five metres under volcanic debris of Mount Merapi.
Barong Hindu temple, constructed on large terraces.
Badut temple near Malang, East Java circa 8th century
Anjukladang inscription (937), issued by King Sindok during his power consolidation in East Java.
Bodhisattva Manjushri from Goa Gajah cave, Bali, demonstrated the influence of Javanese Mataram Sailendran art.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra, the hostility between two kingdoms has led to the collapse of Mataram kingdom.
Buddhist bronze figure depicting Boddhisattva Padmapani, 10th-century dated from late period of Mataram Kingdom
Plaosan twin temples
The scene of the Javanese court depicted in Borobudur bas relief
Prambanan prāsāda (towers) viewed from Ratu Boko hill, the area in Prambanan Plain was the location of the Mataram capital.
The bas relief of 8th century Borobudur depicts the scene in royal court.
Image of Boddhisattva on Plaosan temple.
The bas-relief in 8th century Borobudur depicting rice agriculture in ancient Java
Earliest evidence of a currency system in Java — Javanese gold mas or tahil ingots, circa the 9th century
A nobleman accompanied by his entourage and servants, a bas-relief of Borobudur.
A Buddhist hermit meditating in secluded forest, Borobudur bas-relief
The statue of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani inside the Mendut temple
Shiva statue in main chamber of Prambanan.
The Wonoboyo hoard displays the immense wealth and artistic achievement of the Mataram kingdom.
The magnificent 9th-century Hindu temple of Prambanan, Yogyakarta, was a major Hindu monument in the kingdom of Mataram.
Bas relief in Prambanan depicting a scene taken from Ramayana. The translation of Indian epic into Javanese Kakawin Ramayana took place during Mataram kingdom.
National Vesak ceremony in Borobudur, the Hindu-Buddhist temples dated from Mataram Kingdom are especially important for pilgrimage and ceremony for Indonesian Buddhist and Hindus.
The Javanese Ramayana Ballet perform in Prambanan open air stage. The Mataram Kingdom era has left a profound impact in Javanese culture.

The proper urban development as a city took place later in 13th-century Majapahit's Trowulan.

The Roman Empire at its territorial greatest extent in 117 AD, the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)

Empire

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A "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries".

A "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries".

The Roman Empire at its territorial greatest extent in 117 AD, the time of Trajan's death (with its vassals in pink)
Diachronic map of the main empires of the modern era (1492–1945).
Map showing the four empires of Eurasia in the 2nd century AD
All areas of the world that were once part of the Portuguese Empire. The Portuguese established in the early 16th century together with the Spanish Empire the first global empire and trade network.
Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar

In the 7th century, Maritime Southeast Asia witnessed the rise of a Buddhist thallasocracy, the Srivijaya Empire, which thrived for 600 years and was succeeded by the Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit Empire that ruled from the 13th to 15th centuries.

The alun-alun or town square of Tuban in 1929

Tuban

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Town located on the north coast of Java, in Tuban Regency , approximately 100 km west of Surabaya, the capital of East Java.

Town located on the north coast of Java, in Tuban Regency , approximately 100 km west of Surabaya, the capital of East Java.

The alun-alun or town square of Tuban in 1929
Cave in Rengel village, Tuban during Dutch colonial period. 1900-1940.

Tuban was formerly an important port in the Majapahit era and is mentioned in Chinese records from the eleventh century.

Tenggerese children from East Java

Tenggerese people

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Tenggerese children from East Java
Tengger priests during the Dutch East Indies era.
Tenggerese offering, 1971.
Tenggerese children at a wedding in traditional attire.

The Tenggerese people are a sub-ethnic group of Javanese in eastern Java who claim to be the descendants of the Majapahit princes.