A report on Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

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Adityawarman as Bhairava idol, in the National Museum of Indonesia

Adityawarman

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King of Malayapura Suvarnabhumi, and is the successor of the Mauli dynasty based on central Sumatra.

King of Malayapura Suvarnabhumi, and is the successor of the Mauli dynasty based on central Sumatra.

Adityawarman as Bhairava idol, in the National Museum of Indonesia

He was the cousin of Jayanegara, king of Majapahit from 1309–1328, and the grandson of Tribhuwanaraja, king of Melayu Kingdom.

Blambangan Kingdom

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The last Javanese Hindu kingdom that flourished between the 13th and 18th centuries, based in the eastern corner of Java.

The last Javanese Hindu kingdom that flourished between the 13th and 18th centuries, based in the eastern corner of Java.

It had a long history of its own, developing contemporaneously with the largest Hindu kingdom in Java, Majapahit (1293–1527).

Bronze hand cannon cetbang, found in the Brantas river, with a circular touch hole. The mouth of the cannon is on the right, while the left is where the pole is attached.

Cetbang

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Bronze hand cannon cetbang, found in the Brantas river, with a circular touch hole. The mouth of the cannon is on the right, while the left is where the pole is attached.
A cannon found from the Brantas River. Made of bronze, with a triangular embossed touch hole. The wooden parts were recently made for display.
A double barrelled cetbang on a carriage, with swivel yoke, ca. 1522. The mouth of the cannon is in the shape of Javanese Nāga.
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A galley from Banten, 4 cetbang can be seen.
A Madurese galley, showing 4 cetbang.
A cetbang found on Selayar island
Cetbang in Bali Museum. Length: 1833 mm. Bore: 43 mm. Length of tiller: 315 mm. Widest part: 190 mm (at the base ring).
Bedil naga (dragon cannon) found on the Great Barrier Reef. Indonesian origin, manufactured between 1630 and 1680. Its discovery indicate that Asian vessels visited the coastline of eastern Australia prior to James Cook voyage.
A bronze sacred gun in Java, with breech-block, ca. 1866. Malay women come and settle accounts with the tutelary deity of this gun, and pray for children.
Breech-loading "lilla", Rijksmuseum, ca. 1750–1850. Length 180.5 cm, width 21.5 cm, calibre: 4.5 cm, weight: 120.8 kg.
Meriam coak dubbed "Cirebon cannon" of Jakarta History Museum (Fatahillah Museum).
Two cannons in Keraton Kasepuhan, labelled as cannon from Mongolia. The dragon head is similar to Chinese dragon (long) than Javanese dragon (naga).

The Cetbang (also known as bedil, warastra, or meriam coak) refers to cannons produced and used by the Majapahit Empire (1293–1527) and other kingdoms in the Indonesian archipelago.

North Sumatra

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Province of Indonesia located on the northern part of the island of Sumatra.

Province of Indonesia located on the northern part of the island of Sumatra.

Lake Toba, World's largest volcanic lake
Omo Sebua, means the big house. Is a traditional house from South Nias. It was the king of Tano Niha who lived in it, located in Bawomataluo
A tourist taken in a photo of Bagas Godang in Panyabungan, Mandailing Natal
Old Batak Village, or known as Bolon House (Rumah Bolon) in Simanindo
Maimoon Palace, a historical palace in Medan, it was used as a house for Deli Sultanate for a long time and still active till this day
Bukit Lawang, tourist village at the bank of Bahorok River, Langkat
Distribution of the Batak people and the Toba, Simalungun, Karo, Pakpak, Angkola and Mandailing sub-groups
Inside of Palm Oil Estate of Serdang Bedagai Regency
Paddy field in Ambarita village, Simanindo, Samosir Island
Sipisopiso, North Sumatra
Surfing in Tello Island, Nias
A Bahal Buddhist temple, an archaeological site in Padang Lawas, North Sumatra
Exterior of Kualanamu International Airport, Deli Serdang
Tanjung Morawa toll gate, in Deli Serdang, part of Belmera toll road
Azizi Mosque in Langkat
thumb|Huria Kristen Batak Protestan church in Balige
Darodaro or Big stones (megaliths) that was hauled upwards and used to memorial by Nias people in Bawomataluo village, it has been practised by people on the island since thousand years ago.
Situs Hopong in Dolok Sanggul, these stoned-statues site probably one of evidence of prehistoric Batak civilization
Chinese shaped coin founded in Situs Kota Cina, Labuhan Deli that presumably used as trading during Yuan Dynasty, 12 to 13th century
Bahal temple or known as Portibi is Buddhist candi complex in Bahal village, North Sumatra. The temple site is linked to Pannai Kingdom circa 11th to 13th century CE.
Princes from the Sultanate of Deli, Langkat and Serdang in Sumatra, Indonesia
Potrait of Sisingamangaraja XII, painted by Augustin Sibarani, from the obverse of the 1,000 rupiah banknote (1987 series)
Simalungun Headchiefs of East Sumatra residency, Dutch-East Indies
East Sumatra rally in Pematangsiantar, between 1945 and 1950
Lake Toba, World's largest volcanic lake
Landsat satellite photo of North Sumatra, Nias Island with Lake Toba in the center
North Sumatera governor main office, Medan
Omo Sebua, means "the big house". It refers to a traditional house from South Nias, in which formerly the king of Tano Niha lived, and is located in Bawomataluo
A tourist taken in a photo of Bagas Godang in Panyabungan, Mandailing Natal
Old Batak Toba Village, or known as Bolon House (Rumah Bolon) in Simanindo
Maimoon Palace, a historical palace in Medan. It was used as the residence for the Sultan of Deli for a long time and is still active use to this day
Siwaluh Jabu, Batak Karo traditional house, located in Karo Highlands
Simalungun Rumah Bolon in Pamatang Purba, Simalungun
Birdview of Palm Oil Estate of Asahan Regency
Skyline of capital Medan city
Local craftswomen weaving Ulos in Huta Raja village, Ulos is Bataknese traditional Tenun which is popular exported as garment from North Sumatera
Elephant conservasion area at Tangkahan Ecotourism Area in Mount Leuser National Park, North Sumatera
Pariban Hotsprings in Lau Sidebuk-debuk village, Karo Highlands
Exterior of Kualanamu International Airport, Deli Serdang
Moyo dance in Nias Island
Bataknese Tor-tor dance in Samosir Island
Cap Go Meh festival in Gunungsitoli, Nias Island
Malay-Deli bride in Maimoon Palace, Medan
The Indian community celebrated Thaipusam festival in Medan
The Javanese Bujang Ganong masked dancer, part of Reog, in North Sumatera
Azizi Mosque in Langkat, it was a royal mosque of the Sultanate of Langkat
thumb|HKBP or Batak protestant church in Balige
Maha Vihara Maitreya, one of largest Buddhist temple in Indonesia, located in Percut, Deli Serdang
Sri Mariamman Temple, Medan, the oldest Hindu temple in Medan
Shree Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Ji Sikh Gurdwara, Binjai

The places are mainly defeated to Majapahit.

Modern artist's impression of Wikramawardhana

Wikramawardhana

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Modern artist's impression of Wikramawardhana

Wikramawardhana was a Javanese emperor and succeeded Hayam Wuruk as the fifth monarch of the Majapahit empire, reigning from 1389 to 1429.

Minangkabau (legend)

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The Minangkabau legend told the story of the origin of the name "Minangkabau".

The Minangkabau legend told the story of the origin of the name "Minangkabau".

The invading prince and his troops were somehow traditionally associated with Javanese Majapahit kingdom.

The Singhasari temple of Kertanegara

Kertanegara of Singhasari

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The last and most important ruler of the Singhasari kingdom of Java, reigning from 1268 to 1292.

The last and most important ruler of the Singhasari kingdom of Java, reigning from 1268 to 1292.

The Singhasari temple of Kertanegara
Statue of Amoghapasa presented by Kertanegara of Singhasari to the Melayu Kingdom of East Sumatra

Vijaya then established himself in the lower Brantas delta, where he built a settlement that would grow into the mighty empire of Majapahit.

Statue of Queen Suhita of Majapahit.

Suhita

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Statue of Queen Suhita of Majapahit.

Suhita or Soheeta was a Javanese queen regnant and the sixth monarch of the Majapahit empire, ruling from 1429 to 1447.

Palembang

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Capital city of the Indonesian province of South Sumatra.

Capital city of the Indonesian province of South Sumatra.

Srivijaya Archaeological Park located southwest from Palembang city centre (green). The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
A statue of Buddha, discovered in Bukit Seguntang archaeological site, today displayed in Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Museum Palembang
The walled city of Palembang with its three fortresses in 1682
Local elders of Palembang during the Dutchcolonial period
A painting of Palembang during Dutch rule
Coat of arms of Palembang during colonial era, adopted in 1925
Imperial Japanese Army paratroopers landing during the battle of Palembang, 13 February 1942
The opening ceremony of the 2011 Southeast Asian Games in Jakabaring Stadium, Palembang, 11 November 2011
A NASA satellite image showing the extent of the haze on 24 September 2015. Palembang was directly affected by the haze during this time, disrupting air travels and worsening the health of its residents.
Panorama of Palembang from southeast to southwest as seen from Pasar 16 Ilir
Kajang boats were widely used for transportation in Musi River during colonial times.
Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II International Airport station of the Palembang Light Rail Transit
View of central area in Palembang Icon Shopping Mall
Great Mosque of Palembang
People enjoying local dishes on floating warung boats
Rumah Limas of IDR 10000 banknote is now located in Museum Balaputradewa, Palembang
Bukit Siguntang Mahameru (Seguntang Hill), Palembang. Based on the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals), the hill witnessed the arrival of Sri Maharaja Sang Sapurba Paduka Sri Trimurti Tri Buana, a legendary figure believed to be the progenitor of many royal Malay dynasties in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula and Borneo.
Al-Qur'an Al-Akbar, a major religious site in Palembang. A five-story gigantic replica of the Quran.
Palembang bride in Aesan Gede wedding costume wearing gold jewellery and songket
Jakabaring Aquatic Center in Jakabaring Sport City complex
SMA Negeri 19 Palembang, a public high school in Palembang
SMA PGRI 2 Palembang, a private high school in Palembang

Some say that the name was given by four brothers who survived a shipwreck near Musi River during the Majapahit reign.

Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.

Kublai Khan

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The founder of the Yuan dynasty of China and the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position.

The founder of the Yuan dynasty of China and the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position.

Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.
Portrait of young Kublai by Araniko, a Nepali artist in Kublai's court
“The Emperor Kublai Khan in a tower carried by four elephants on the day of the battle“ French Engraving, 18th century.
Kublai Khan was chosen by his many supporters to become the next Great Khan at the Grand Kurultai in the year 1260. 
Kublai Khan and His Empress Enthroned, from a Jami al-Twarikh (or Chingiznama). Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar, 1596. Mughal Court. Opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper. India. Freer Gallery of Art. F1954.31
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Han Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280.
Extract of the letter of Arghun to Philip IV of France, in the Mongolian script, dated 1289. French National Archives.
The Yuan Dynasty of China, c. 1294
Chinese opera flourished during Yuan China.
The "Muslim trebuchet" (or Huihui Pao) used to breach the walls of Fancheng and Xiangyang.
A Yuan dynasty hand cannon
Two dragons chasing a flaming pearl was a symbol associated with Goryeo.
The Gangnido reflects the Chinese geographical knowledge during the Mongol Empire about countries in the West.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
Japanese samurai boarding Yuan ships in 1281.
Kublai gives financial support to the Polo family.
Rabban Bar Sauma, ambassador of Great Khan Kublai and Ilkhan Arghun, travelled from Dadu to Rome, Tuscany, Genoa, Paris, and Bordeaux to meet with European rulers in 1287–88.
The White Stupa of Dadu (or Khanbaliq; now Beijing).
A Yuan dynasty jade belt plaque featuring carved designs of the Azure Dragon, highly regarded as a symbol of Yuan China's maritime strength.
In Ilkhanate Persia, Ghazan converted to Islam and recognized Kublai Khan as his suzerain.
Chabi, Khatun of Kublai and Empress of the Mongol Empire
Longevity Hill in Beijing, where Kublai Khan wrote his poem.
Laborers transporting construction materials to Khanbaliq
Statue of Kublai Khan in Sükhbaatar Square, Ulaanbaatar. Together with Ögedei Khan's, and the much larger Genghis Khan's statues, it forms a statue complex dedicated to the Mongol Empire.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.

During the last years of his reign, Kublai launched a naval punitive expedition of 20–30,000 men against Singhasari on Java (1293), but the invading Mongol forces were forced to withdraw by Majapahit after considerable losses of more than 3000 troops.