A report on Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

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Johor

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State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

State of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula.

The Royal Crown in Istana Bukit Serene, Johor, dubbed the "Jewel"
Map of the Dominion of Johor, 1727
A painting by John Edmund Taylor showing people in rowboats on the Johor River in the evening seen from Changi in Singapore, July 1879
Johor Bahru town during the British period, c. 1920
Indian troops embark onto boats during an invasion exercise in southern Johore, 13 November 1941.
Three Australian 8th Division members firing on Japanese Type 95 Ha-Gō tanks on the Muar-Parit Sulong road during the Battle of Muar, 18 January 1942
View of the blown up Johor–Singapore Causeway with the gap visible in the middle, which delayed the Japanese conquest of Singapore for over a week to 8 February 1942
Additional Japanese troops advancing through an iron bridge in Labis which had been destroyed by the retreating British forces down the Malayan Peninsula, 22 January 1942
British Brigadier J J McCully inspects men of the 4th Regiment of the Malayan People’s Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) guerrillas at Johor Bahru after the end of war against the Japanese, 1945
MPAJA guerrillas marching through the street of Johor Bahru during their disbandment ceremony in December 1945
Onn Jaafar (left), the Menteri Besar of Johor and founder of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) with Dr. W. Linehan (right), C.M.G. Adviser on Constitutional Affairs during the Federation of Malaya Agreements in 1948
Dato' Jaafar Muhammad Building in Kota Iskandar, which houses the office of the Menteri Besar of Johor
The Johor Royal Family in 2015
The Sultan Ismail Building houses the Johor State Legislative Assembly in Kota Iskandar, Iskandar Puteri.
A district and land office in Segamat District.
A district council office in Mersing District.
A municipal council office in Kluang District.
A FELDA office in Kota Tinggi District.
Sultan Ibrahim leading the Johor Military Forces (JMF) during the King's Birthday Parade of George V in Singapore, c. 1920
Map of the disputed island and rocks
Johor is located in southern Malay Peninsula as seen from NASA satellite image.
Forest trees of Johor in tropical rainforest climate
A female tiger shrike (Lanius tigrinus) in Panti Forest
Heron in a swamp of Johor
Crocodile sanctuary in Pasir Gudang.
Shipping container in Tanjung Pelepas Port
Theme park tourism such as the Legoland Malaysia Resort (pictured) has been a major part of the state economy since their opening in 2012.
Palm oil and pineapple plantation in Rengit, Batu Pahat District.
A farmers' market in Pontian Kechil, Pontian District.
Puteri Harbour Family Park landscapes
Johor Bahru city centre at dusk
A village in Johor with a telephone line
Tebrau Highway leading to the city centre, part of Federal Route 3
Johor Bahru Sentral railway station in Johor Bahru.
Senai International Airport in Senai.
Puteri Harbour International Ferry Terminal in Iskandar Puteri.
Sultanah Aminah Hospital, the main government hospital in the state
University of Technology Malaysia (UTM) chancellory building.
Southern University College main gate in Skudai, Iskandar Puteri.
Johor residents with families near the end of the year
Girls from the aboriginal people of Johor
Multilingual sign in Malay, English and Chinese at a workshop in Kota Tinggi.
The Johor Heritage Foundation building in the state capital
Zapin performance in a school in Batu Pahat
Chingay parade celebration in the capital city as part of Chinese New Year festivities in 2018
Mee bandung in Johor
The Tan Sri Dato' Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium was the home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim until 2019.
The new home stadium of Johor Darul Ta'zim since 2020.
Mount Ophir
Rawa Island beach
Sunrise over a palm oil plantation
Waterfall in Mount Belumut

After the demise of the kingdom, much of the Malay coast fell under the jurisdiction of Siam and later Majapahit.

Bangkang pinawa, an ancient Philippine mortar and pestle.

Luzon

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Largest and most populous island in the Philippines.

Largest and most populous island in the Philippines.

Bangkang pinawa, an ancient Philippine mortar and pestle.
Detail of an illustration from Jean Mallat's Les Philippines (1846), showing "a Tagalog couple pounding rice." The mortar depicted is known as a "lusong", which was also the Old Tagalog name of the Pasig River delta.
U.S. Navy ships under attack while entering Lingayen Gulf, January 1945
The Central Luzon plain with Mount Arayat in the background
Lake Pinatubo in Zambales
A view of Quezon City in September 2017, the largest city in Luzon island
An Ifugao warrior with some of his trophies, Cordillera Mountains, circa 1912
Dominant languages per administrative region.
Saint Augustine Catholic Church in Paoay
EDSA, a major thoroughfare in Metro Manila
North coast of Luzon along the Cagayan-Ilocos Norte boundary
Summit of Mount Pulag, Luzon's highest mountain
West coast of Luzon at San Juan overlooking the South China Sea
The Cagayan Valley at Cabagan with the Sierra Madre mountains in the background
Canoes along upstream Cagayan River at Quirino province

During the 1300s, the Javanese-centered Hindu empire of Majapahit briefly ruled over Luzon as recorded in the epic poem Nagarakretagama, which reports imperial colonies in the Philippines at Saludong (Manila) and Solot (Sulu).

Sudarma Wisuta war

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Perang Sudarma Wisuta, meaning the war between father and son, is the name given in Javanese chronicles for a 1478 conflict between the rising Demak Sultanate and the waning Majapahit Empire.

Javanese ships, identified as malangbangs, at the 1628 siege of Batavia. Compare the size with the moored East Indiaman.

Malangbang

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Type of medieval sailing ship from Indonesia.

Type of medieval sailing ship from Indonesia.

Javanese ships, identified as malangbangs, at the 1628 siege of Batavia. Compare the size with the moored East Indiaman.

Malangbang is one of Majapahit's main naval vessel type after jong and kelulus.

Bajau stilt houses over the sea in Basilan.

Sulu Archipelago

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Chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the southwestern Philippines.

Chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the southwestern Philippines.

Bajau stilt houses over the sea in Basilan.
Panguan Island,The last island of the Sulu Archipelago before the Philippine-Malaysia Border.
The pirate ships used by the Moro pirates were known as proa.
Pre-1636 Sultanate of Sulu trade range.
The Sultanate of Sulu range in 1636 with the arrival of Spain.
The Sulu areas in 1764 with the arrival of France.
The Sulu Archipelago during the Spanish occupation.
Spanish warships bombarding the Moro pirates of Balanguingui in 1848.
The American occupation steps over the Sulu Archipelago in 1899.
The situation until the end of World War II.
The situation until the independence of the Philippines.
The Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) areas in green.

The Sulu Archipelago was once part of Majapahit Empire and mentioned in the Old Javanese eulogy of Nagarakretagama by the name "Solot".

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010

Wayang

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Traditional form of puppet theatre play originated on the Indonesian island of Java.

Traditional form of puppet theatre play originated on the Indonesian island of Java.

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010
There are three main components of wayang kulit shows including dalang, gamelan (music and sindhen), and wayang kulit itself
Blencong, a Javanese oil lamp in the form of the mythical Garuda bird for wayang kulit performances, before 1924
Palm leaves manuscript of kakawin Arjunawiwaha is written by Mpu Kanwa in 1035 CE
A dalang (puppet master) depicting a fight in a wayang kulit performance
A wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance using kelir (thin fabric) as a border between the puppeteer (dalang) who plays the puppets and the audience
Wayang golek performance (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia
Menak Amir Hamzah manuscripts, before 1792.
Dalang (puppet master), sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and wiyaga (gamelan musicians) in a wayang kulit show in Java
The front view of the Wayang Museum seen from Fatahillah Square (Taman Fatahillah)
Wayang kulit performance with gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A dalang (puppeteer) in a {{Transl|jv|wayang golek}} (wooden puppet) performance, between 1880 and 1910
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta; in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kumbakarna, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Gatot Kaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Wibisana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Princess Shinta, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1983
Yudhishthira, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Princess Tari, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1934
Cepot, a Sundanese Punokawan, Indonesia
Rahwana, Indonesia in 2004
Ramawijaya, Indonesia in 2004
Gatot kaca, Indonesia in 2015
Kumbakarna, Indonesia before 1976
Dewi Drupadi, Indonesia before 1976
Menak Jingga, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1953
Damar Wulan, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Demon, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1950
Figure of Batara Guru
Duryudhana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Brathasena, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Final fight in alun-alun in Kediri, East Java. Tawang Alun kills Klana. Indonesia 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji, mbok Kili (left), and Ganda Ripa or Panji (right) in the palace in Kediri, 17th century
Radèn Gunung Sari on horse says goodbye to his advisers Tratag and Gimeng before travelling to princess Kumuda Ningrat, 18th century
Princess Sekar Taji and Panji meet in Paluhamba market, 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji in palace garden approached by Klana, 17th century
Competition between Panji Sepuh (left) and Jaya Puspita (right), 18th century
Pandava and Krishna in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
King Duryodana in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Giants in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Punokawan in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Rama and Shinta in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} Ramayana Ballet performance
Opening of {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance, usually showing traditional Javanese dance
Dancing {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} in Malang
Studio portrait of {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} actors
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} Malang
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Anggada, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Jayadrata, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Kendran, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Sangruda, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Duryadana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Gatakaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jayengrana, a collection from Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmaya, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmadi, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jiweng, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Putri Murtinjung, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang Golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, King Maktal (Albania), a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
{{Transl|jv|Kancil}}
{{Transl|jv|Srigala}}
{{Transl|jv|Macan}}
{{Transl|jv|Baya}}
{{Transl|jv|Keong}}
{{Transl|jv|Nenek Petani}}
Wayang glass painting depiction of Bharatayudha battle.
A wayang kulit set and a gamelan ensemble collection, Indonesia section at the Musical Instrument Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, United States.
A {{lang|jv|wayang}} show in Java, Indonesia, presenting a {{lang|jv|wayang}} puppet.
Wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Gatot Kaca, Indonesia in 2017.
Sundanese wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia.
A {{lang|jv|wayang klithik}} (flat wooden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet show) accompanied by a gamelan ensemble in Java, circa 1870.
{{lang|jv|Wayang}} (shadow puppets) from central Java, a scene from Irawan's Wedding, mid-20th century, University of Hawaii Dept. of Theater and Dance.
{{lang|jv|Wayang beber}} depiction of a battle.
{{lang|jv|Wayang kulit}} and {{lang|jv|wayang golek}} {{lang|jv|dalang}} (puppeteer), Ki Entus Susmono.
{{lang|jv|Wayang golek}} performance in Yogyakarta.
Wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance.
Kayon (Gunungan).
{{lang|jv|Wayang makassar}}

The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit.

Notable mandalas in classical Southeast Asian history (c. undefined 5th to 15th century). From north to south; Bagan, Ayutthaya, Champa, Angkor, Srivijaya and Majapahit.

Mandala (political model)

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Sanskrit word meaning 'circle'.

Sanskrit word meaning 'circle'.

Notable mandalas in classical Southeast Asian history (c. undefined 5th to 15th century). From north to south; Bagan, Ayutthaya, Champa, Angkor, Srivijaya and Majapahit.
Intersecting mandalas circa 1360: from north to south: Lan Xang, Lanna, Sukhothai, Ayutthaya, Khmer and Champa.
Bunga mas (Flowers of Gold), tribute from northern Malay states in Malay peninsula for Siam. National Museum, Kuala Lumpur.)

Historically, the main suzerain or overlord states were the Khmer Empire of Cambodia; Srivijaya of South Sumatra; the successive kingdoms of Medang, Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit of Java; the Ayutthaya Kingdom of Thailand; Champa and early Đại Việt.

Old picture of a moored tongkang

Tongkang

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Tongkang or "Tong'kang" refers to several type of boats used to carry goods along rivers and shoreline in Maritime Southeast Asia.

Tongkang or "Tong'kang" refers to several type of boats used to carry goods along rivers and shoreline in Maritime Southeast Asia.

Old picture of a moored tongkang
The steel truss of Alkaff Bridge, Singapore, is shaped roughly like the hull of a tongkang.
Twakow loading lubricant oil in Singapore

One passage mentioned it as being used by Majapahit empire during the 1350 attack on Singapura.

Kediri (city)

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Indonesian city, located near the Brantas River in the province of East Java on the island of Java.

Indonesian city, located near the Brantas River in the province of East Java on the island of Java.

VOC troops storming Kediri – then the capital of Trunajaya – in 1678 during the Trunajaya War. Depicted in an 1890 Dutch children's novel.

Over the centuries, control of the city passed to the Singhasari, Majapahit, Demak and Mataram kingdoms.

Sarawak

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State of Malaysia.

State of Malaysia.

The rhinoceros hornbill is the state bird of Sarawak.
James Brooke, the first White Rajah
Territorial expansion of the Raj of Sarawak from 1841 to 1905 played a significant role to the present-day boundaries of the modern state of Sarawak.
Crowds throng a street in Kuching to witness the arrival of Australian Imperial Force (AIF) on 12 September 1945.
Tan Sri Datuk Amar Stephen Kalong Ningkan declaring the formation of the Federation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963
Timeline of political parties in Sarawak
The State Assembly building is located near the Kuching waterfront.
Julan waterfall (located at Usun Apau Plieran) is the highest waterfall in Sarawak
The Rajang River is the longest river in Malaysia
An orangutan peeling a banana at Semenggoh Wildlife Reserve.
A logging camp along the Rajang River
An LNG port at Bintulu, Sarawak
Turbines inside the Bakun Dam power house. The dam is the main source for electric energy in Sarawak.
French Romani Manouche band performing during Rainforest World Music Festival 2006
Kuching International Airport terminal
Bintulu International Container Terminal (BICT) at Bintulu seaport
The Sarawak General Hospital
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) chancellory building
Major ethnic groups in Sarawak. Clockwise from top right: Melanau girls with the traditional Baju Kurung, Sarawakian Chinese woman in her traditional dress of Cheongsam, a Bidayuh girl, and an Iban warrior in his traditional dress.
A Kayan tribesman, playing the Sapé.
Ngajat, the Iban warrior dance gazetted as part of Sarawak culture.
A bowl of Sarawak laksa
alt=Tall, light grey stone columns protruding above a forest|Pinnacles at Gunung Mulu National Park
The vegetations at the summit of Mount Murud
South China Sea view from Sarawak
alt=A mudflat receding into the sea in the distance, with a cloud-topped mountain beyond|Parts of the Bako National Park
St. Joseph Cathedral
Old Sarawak State Mosque
Hong San Si Temple
The distribution of language families of Sarawak shown by colours:
(click image to enlarge) 
Malayic
North Borneo and Melanau Kajang languages
Land Dayak
Areas with multiple languages

In the 14th century, the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Prapanca in 1365, mentioned Barune as the constituent state of Hindu Majapahit, which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor.