Majdanek concentration camp

MajdanekMaidanekMajdanek extermination campKL LublinLublin-MajdanekMajdanek death campLublin (Majdanek)KL Lublin/Majdanek concentration campKonzentrationslager LublinLublin
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. It had seven gas chambers, two wooden gallows, and some 227 structures in all, placing it among the largest of Nazi-run concentration camps.wikipedia
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Extermination camp

death campsdeath campextermination camps
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. Although initially purposed for forced labor rather than extermination, the camp was used to kill people on an industrial scale during Operation Reinhard, the German plan to murder all Jews within their own General Government territory of Poland. In July 1942, Himmler visited Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka; the three secret extermination camps built specifically for the Nazi German Operation Reinhard purposed to eliminate Polish Jewry.
Some Nazi camps, such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, served a dual purpose before the end of the war in 1945: extermination by poison gas, but also through extreme work under starvation conditions.

Operation Reinhard

Aktion ReinhardAktion ReinhardtOperation Reinhardt
Although initially purposed for forced labor rather than extermination, the camp was used to kill people on an industrial scale during Operation Reinhard, the German plan to murder all Jews within their own General Government territory of Poland. In July 1942, Himmler visited Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka; the three secret extermination camps built specifically for the Nazi German Operation Reinhard purposed to eliminate Polish Jewry.
In addition, mass-killing facilities, using Zyklon B, were developed at about the same time at the Majdanek concentration camp and at Auschwitz II-Birkenau, near the earlier-established Auschwitz I camp for ethnically Polish prisoners.

Odilo Globočnik

Odilo GlobocnikGlobocnikGauleiter'' Globocnik
Konzentrationslager Lublin was established in October 1941 on the orders of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, forwarded to Odilo Globocnik soon after his visit to Lublin on 17–20 July 1941 in the course of Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
As an associate of Adolf Eichmann, he had a leading role in Operation Reinhard, which saw the murder of over one million mostly Polish Jews during the Holocaust in Nazi extermination camps Majdanek, Treblinka, Sobibór and Bełżec.

Anton Thernes

The camp, which operated from October 1, 1941, until July 22, 1944, was captured nearly intact, because the rapid advance of the Soviet Red Army during Operation Bagration prevented the SS from destroying most of its infrastructure, and the inept Deputy Camp Commandant Anton Thernes failed in his task of removing incriminating evidence of war crimes.
SS-Obersturmführer Anton Thernes (8 February 1892 – 3 December 1944) was a Nazi German war criminal, deputy commandant of administration at the notorious Majdanek concentration camp on the outskirts of Lublin, Poland in World War II.

Lublin

Lublin, PolandLubelskieDistrikt Lublin
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II. Unlike other similar camps in Nazi-occupied Poland, Majdanek was not in a remote rural location away from population centres but within the boundaries of a major city (see also: Nisko Plan preceding the formation of the Ghetto).
The remainder were moved to facilities around the Majdanek concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city.

Lublin Ghetto

Lublinghetto in Lublinformation of the Ghetto
Unlike other similar camps in Nazi-occupied Poland, Majdanek was not in a remote rural location away from population centres but within the boundaries of a major city (see also: Nisko Plan preceding the formation of the Ghetto).
Between mid-March and mid-April 1942 over 30,000 Jews were delivered to their deaths in cattle trucks at the Bełżec extermination camp and additional 4,000 at Majdanek.

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Ghetto Uprisinguprisinguprising in the Warsaw Ghetto
Due to the pressing need for foreign manpower in the war industry, the Jewish laborers from Poland were originally spared, and were (for a time) either kept in the ghettos such as the one in Warsaw (which became a concentration camp after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising), or sent to labor camps such as Majdanek where they worked primarily at the Steyr-Daimler-Puch weapons/munitions factory.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; powstanie w getcie warszawskim; Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II to oppose Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to Majdanek and Treblinka concentration camps.

Lublin Reservation

Nisko PlanLublin districtDistrict Lublin
Unlike other similar camps in Nazi-occupied Poland, Majdanek was not in a remote rural location away from population centres but within the boundaries of a major city (see also: Nisko Plan preceding the formation of the Ghetto).
Two other extermination camps, Sobibor and Majdanek, were later set up in the Lublin district also.

Lublin–Brest Offensive

Lublin-Brest OffensiveLublin-Brest Operation17 July 1944
The camp, which operated from October 1, 1941, until July 22, 1944, was captured nearly intact, because the rapid advance of the Soviet Red Army during Operation Bagration prevented the SS from destroying most of its infrastructure, and the inept Deputy Camp Commandant Anton Thernes failed in his task of removing incriminating evidence of war crimes.
Nazi concentration camp Maidanek near Lublin was liberated on 22 July.

Hermine Braunsteiner

Braunsteiner, HermineHermine Braunsteiner-Ryan
These SS guards, who had been trained at the Ravensbrück concentration camp, included the convicted war criminals Elsa Ehrich, Hermine Boettcher-Brueckner, Hermine Braunsteiner, Hildegard Lächert, Rosy Suess (Süss) Elisabeth Knoblich-Ernst, Charlotte Karla Mayer-Woellert, and Gertrud Heise (1942–1944).
Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan (July 16, 1919 – April 19, 1999) was a German SS Helferin and female camp guard at Ravensbrück and Majdanek concentration camps, and the first Nazi war criminal to be extradited from the United States, to face trial in Germany.

Zamość

ZamosczamojskiZamojskie
However, due to large Jewish populations in south-eastern Poland including Kraków, Lwów, Zamość and Warsaw which were not yet "processed", Majdanek was refurbished as a killing center around March 1942.
Most of them were deported to forced labor camps in Germany, concentration or extermination camps such as Auschwitz, Majdanek and Bełżec.

Nazi concentration camps

Nazi concentration campconcentration campconcentration camps
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
The first major camp, Majdanek, was discovered by the advancing Soviets on July 23, 1944.

Elsa Ehrich

These SS guards, who had been trained at the Ravensbrück concentration camp, included the convicted war criminals Elsa Ehrich, Hermine Boettcher-Brueckner, Hermine Braunsteiner, Hildegard Lächert, Rosy Suess (Süss) Elisabeth Knoblich-Ernst, Charlotte Karla Mayer-Woellert, and Gertrud Heise (1942–1944).
Else Lieschen Frida "Elsa" Ehrich (8 March 1914 – 26 October 1948) was an SS guard at the Nazi concentration camps, including at Kraków-Płaszów and the Majdanek concentration camp during World War II.

Treblinka extermination camp

TreblinkaTreblinka concentration campTreblinka II
In July 1942, Himmler visited Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka; the three secret extermination camps built specifically for the Nazi German Operation Reinhard purposed to eliminate Polish Jewry.
Alongside the Reinhard camps, mass killing facilities using Zyklon B were developed at the Majdanek concentration camp in March 1942, and at Auschwitz II-Birkenau between March and June.

Hildegard Lächert

Hildegard Lachert
These SS guards, who had been trained at the Ravensbrück concentration camp, included the convicted war criminals Elsa Ehrich, Hermine Boettcher-Brueckner, Hermine Braunsteiner, Hildegard Lächert, Rosy Suess (Süss) Elisabeth Knoblich-Ernst, Charlotte Karla Mayer-Woellert, and Gertrud Heise (1942–1944).
She became publicly known for her service at Ravensbrück, Majdanek and Auschwitz-Birkenau.

Sobibor extermination camp

SobiborSobibórSobibór extermination camp
In July 1942, Himmler visited Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka; the three secret extermination camps built specifically for the Nazi German Operation Reinhard purposed to eliminate Polish Jewry.
These people spent several hours at Sobibór and were transferred almost immediately to slave-labour projects including Majdanek and the Alter Flugplatz airfield in the city of Lublin, where materials looted from the gassed victims were prepared for shipment to Germany.

Trawniki concentration camp

TrawnikiSS Battalion StreibelTrawniki training camp
These were incorporated in early autumn 1943 when the remaining forced labor camps around Lublin including Budzyn, Trawniki, Poniatowa, Krasnik, Pulawy, as well as the "Airstrip", and Lipowa concentration camps became sub-camps of Majdanek.
And in 1942, it became the forced-labor camp for thousands of Jews within the KL Lublin system of subcamps as well.

Fritz Ritterbusch

On 18 June 1943 Fritz Ritterbusch moved to KL Lublin to become aide-de-camp to the Commandant.
Fritz Ritterbusch (11 January 1894 – 14 May 1946) was a SS-Haupftsturmführer, a member of the crew of the Hinzert concentration camp, Lublin and Gross-Rosen and others.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
Also known to the SS as Konzentrationslager (KL) Lublin, Majdanek remains the best-preserved Nazi concentration camp of the Holocaust.
The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through work in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.

Poniatowa concentration camp

PoniatowaPoniatowa ''ArbeitslagerPoniatowa camp
These were incorporated in early autumn 1943 when the remaining forced labor camps around Lublin including Budzyn, Trawniki, Poniatowa, Krasnik, Pulawy, as well as the "Airstrip", and Lipowa concentration camps became sub-camps of Majdanek.
Poniatowa became part of the Majdanek concentration camp system of subcamps in the early autumn of 1943.

Warsaw Ghetto

WarsawGhettothe Ghetto
Due to the pressing need for foreign manpower in the war industry, the Jewish laborers from Poland were originally spared, and were (for a time) either kept in the ghettos such as the one in Warsaw (which became a concentration camp after the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising), or sent to labor camps such as Majdanek where they worked primarily at the Steyr-Daimler-Puch weapons/munitions factory. However, due to large Jewish populations in south-eastern Poland including Kraków, Lwów, Zamość and Warsaw which were not yet "processed", Majdanek was refurbished as a killing center around March 1942.
The extermination of Jews by means of poisonous gases was carried out at Treblinka II under the auspices of Operation Reinhard, which also included Bełżec, Majdanek, and Sobibór death camps.

Zyklon B

Zyklon-Bchemical gas poisoningCyclon
There are two identical buildings at Majdanek, where Zyklon-B was used.
The product is infamous for its use by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust to murder approximately one million people in gas chambers installed at Auschwitz-Birkenau, Majdanek, and other extermination camps.

Aktion Erntefest

Operation Harvest FestivalHarvest FestivalOperation "Harvest Festival
Operation Reinhard continued until early November 1943, when the last Jewish prisoners of the Majdanek system of subcamps from the District Lublin in the General Government were massacred by the firing squads of Trawniki men during Operation "Harvest Festival." With respect to main camp at Majdanek, the most notorious executions occurred on November 3, 1943, when 18,400 Jews were killed on a single day.
The operation aimed at extermination of Jews pressed into forced-labour at the camps of the Lublin reservation including Majdanek concentration camp and all its subcamps.

Holocaust trains

Holocaust trainHolocaust transportsfreight trains
The current figure is considered "incredibly low" by Rajca, nevertheless it has been accepted by the Museum Board of Directors "with a certain caution", pending further research into the number of prisoners who were not entered into the Holocaust train records by German camp administration.
In reality, from 1942 on, for most Jews, deportations meant only death at either Bełżec, Chełmno, Sobibór, Majdanek, Treblinka, or Auschwitz-Birkenau.

General Government

occupied PolandGeneralgouvernementPoland
Although initially purposed for forced labor rather than extermination, the camp was used to kill people on an industrial scale during Operation Reinhard, the German plan to murder all Jews within their own General Government territory of Poland. Operation Reinhard continued until early November 1943, when the last Jewish prisoners of the Majdanek system of subcamps from the District Lublin in the General Government were massacred by the firing squads of Trawniki men during Operation "Harvest Festival." With respect to main camp at Majdanek, the most notorious executions occurred on November 3, 1943, when 18,400 Jews were killed on a single day.
The General Government was the location of four of the seven extermination camps of World War II in which the most extreme measures of the Holocaust were carried out, including closely located Majdanek concentration camp, Sobibor extermination camp and Belzec extermination camp.