Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depressiondepressedsevere depressiondepressiveunipolar depressionclinically depresseddepressive illnessunipolar
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.wikipedia
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Major depressive episode

depressive episodedepressionmajor depressive episodes
Some people have periods of depression separated by years in which they are normal, while others nearly always have symptoms present.
A major depressive episode (MDE) is a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Common mental disorders include depression, which affects about 300 million, bipolar disorder, which affects about 60 million, dementia, which affects about 50 million, and schizophrenia and other psychoses, which affects about 23 million people globally.

Depression (mood)

depressiondepressedmelancholy
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Depressed mood is a symptom of some mood disorders such as major depressive disorder or dysthymia; it is a normal temporary reaction to life events, such as the loss of a loved one; and it is also a symptom of some physical diseases and a side effect of some drugs and medical treatments.

Antidepressant

antidepressantsanti-depressantanti-depressants
Typically, people are treated with counseling and antidepressant medication.
Antidepressants are medications used to treat major depressive disorder, some anxiety disorders, some chronic pain conditions, and to help manage some addictions.

Mood disorder

depressionmood disordersdepressive disorder
Between 2–8% of adults with major depression die by suicide, and about 50% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder.
Mood disorders fall into the basic groups of elevated mood, such as mania or hypomania; depressed mood, of which the best-known and most researched is major depressive disorder (MDD) (commonly called clinical depression, unipolar depression, or major depression); and moods which cycle between mania and depression, known as bipolar disorder (BD) (formerly known as manic depression).

Dysthymia

chronic depressiondysthymic disorderdysthymic
It was a split of the previous depressive neurosis in the DSM-II, which also encompassed the conditions now known as dysthymia and adjustment disorder with depressed mood.
Dysthymia, also known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, with less severe but longer-lasting symptoms.

Electroconvulsive therapy

electroshock therapyelectroshockshock therapy
If other measures are not effective, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be considered.
ECT is often used with informed consent as a safe and effective intervention for major depressive disorder, mania, and catatonia.

Social predictors of depression

personal relationships
Major depression significantly affects a person's family and personal relationships, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health.
Social predictors of depression are aspects of one's social environment that are related to an individual developing major depression.

Sadness

sadsaddenedSorrow
Major depression is more severe and lasts longer than sadness, which is a normal part of life.
An example of severe sadness is depression, a mood which can be brought on by major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder.

Mental status examination

mental statuspsychiatric examinationmental status exam
The diagnosis of major depressive disorder is based on the person's reported experiences and a mental status examination.
Colorful or bizarre clothing might suggest mania, while unkempt, dirty clothes might suggest schizophrenia or depression.

Psychomotor agitation

agitationrestlessnessexcitement
Family and friends may notice that the person's behavior is either agitated or lethargic.
Psychomotor agitation is typically found in major depressive disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder, and sometimes the manic phase in bipolar disorder, though it can also be a result of an excess intake of stimulants.

Parkinson's disease

ParkinsonParkinson’s diseaseParkinson disease
Depression often coexists with physical disorders common among the elderly, such as stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson's disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Depression and anxiety are also common, occurring in more than a third of people with PD. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep, and emotional problems.

Seasonal affective disorder

winter bluesseasonal depressionSAD
Depression can also be exacerbated during particular months (usually winter) for those with seasonal affective disorder.
SAD is a type of major depressive disorder, and sufferers may exhibit any of the associated symptoms, such as feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness, thoughts of suicide, loss of interest in activities, withdrawal from social interaction, sleep and appetite problems, difficulty with concentrating and making decisions, decreased libido, a lack of energy, or agitation.

Rumination (psychology)

ruminationruminateruminations
Depressed people may be preoccupied with, or ruminate over, thoughts and feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred.
As evidence for this definition, rumination has been implicated in the development, maintenance, and aggravation of both depressive symptoms as well as episodes of major depression.

Psychosis

psychoticpsychosespsychotic break
In severe cases, depressed people may have symptoms of psychosis.
In Kraepelin's classification this would include 'unipolar' clinical depression, as well as bipolar disorder and other mood disorders such as cyclothymia.

Anhedonia

anhedonicinability to experience pleasurelack of deriving enjoyment
It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause.
Anhedonia is a core symptom of major depressive disorder; therefore, individuals experiencing this symptom can be diagnosed with depression, even in the absence of low/depressed mood.

Insomnia

trouble sleepingsleeplessnessdifficulty sleeping
Insomnia is common among the depressed.
Early morning awakening is often a characteristic of depression.

Psychomotor retardation

psychomotorpsychomotor impairmentdelayed psychomotor development
Family and friends may notice that the person's behavior is either agitated or lethargic.
Psychomotor retardation is most-commonly seen in people with major depression and in the depressed phase of bipolar disorder; it is also associated with the adverse effects of certain drugs, such as benzodiazepines.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
The 1990–92 National Comorbidity Survey (US) reports that half of those with major depression also have lifetime anxiety and its associated disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder.
Anxiety disorders often occur with other mental health disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, eating disorders, or certain personality disorders. It also commonly occurs with personality traits such as neuroticism.

Fatigue

exhaustionOverexertiontiredness
A depressed person may report multiple physical symptoms such as fatigue, headaches, or digestive problems; physical complaints are the most common presenting problem in developing countries, according to the World Health Organization's criteria for depression.
Medical causes of acute fatigue include depression; chemical causes, such as dehydration, poisoning, low blood sugar, or mineral or vitamin deficiencies.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

emphysemaCOPDpulmonary emphysema
Depression often coexists with physical disorders common among the elderly, such as stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, Parkinson's disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
These conditions include ischemic heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, muscle wasting, osteoporosis, lung cancer, anxiety disorder, sexual dysfunction, and depression.

Child abuse

abuseabusiveabused
Childhood abuse, either physical, sexual or psychological, are all risk factors for depression, among other psychiatric issues that co-occur such as anxiety and drug abuse.
Effects of child sexual abuse on the victim(s) include guilt and self-blame, flashbacks, nightmares, insomnia, fear of things associated with the abuse (including objects, smells, places, doctor's visits, etc.), self-esteem difficulties, sexual dysfunction, chronic pain, addiction, self-injury, suicidal ideation, somatic complaints, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, other mental illnesses including borderline personality disorder and dissociative identity disorder, propensity to re-victimization in adulthood, bulimia nervosa, and physical injury to the child, among other problems.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

post-traumatic stress disorderPTSDpost traumatic stress disorder
Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression often co-occur.
PTSD causes biochemical changes in the brain and body, that differ from other psychiatric disorders such as major depression.

Appetite

appetite lossappetitiveappetitive behavior
Appetite often decreases, with resulting weight loss, although increased appetite and weight gain occasionally occur.
Likewise, hyperphagia (excessive eating) may be a result of hormonal imbalances, mental disorders (e.g., depression) and others.

Hypersomnia

hypersomnolenceoversleepingexcessive sleepiness
Hypersomnia, or oversleeping, can also happen.
Hypersomnia can be secondary to disorders such as clinical depression, multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, epilepsy, or obesity.