Major trauma

traumatrauma careinjuredbodily injuryphysical traumatraumaticinjuresignificant traumaacute injurybodily injuries
Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.wikipedia
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Death

mortalitydeceaseddead
Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.
Phenomena which commonly bring about death include aging, predation, malnutrition, disease, suicide, homicide, starvation, dehydration, and accidents or major trauma resulting in terminal injury.

Trauma center

Level I trauma centerLevel II trauma centerLevel III trauma center
Depending on the severity of injury, quickness of management and transportation to an appropriate medical facility (called a trauma center) may be necessary to prevent loss of life or limb.
A trauma center (or trauma centre) is a hospital equipped and staffed to provide care for patients suffering from major traumatic injuries such as falls, motor vehicle collisions, or gunshot wounds.

Clearing the cervical spine

clearingrule out a spinal injury
The primary survey generally includes assessment of the cervical spine, though clearing it is often not possible until after imaging, or the person has improved.
It is generally performed in cases of major trauma.

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

multiple organ failuremulti-organ failuremultiorgan failure
Prolonged inflammation may cause multiple organ dysfunction syndrome or systemic inflammatory response syndrome.
According to findings of Professor Zsolt Balogh and his team at University of Newcastle (Australia), mitochondrial DNA is the leading cause of severe inflammation due to a massive amount of mitochondrial DNA that leaks into the blood stream due to cell death of patients that survived major trauma.

Tranexamic acid

Cyklokapronanti-bleeding drugLysteda
Tranexamic acid decreases death in people who are having ongoing bleeding due to trauma, as well as those with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury and evidence of intracranial bleeding on CT scan.
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a medication used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss from major trauma, postpartum bleeding, surgery, tooth removal, nosebleeds, and heavy menstruation.

Emergency medical services

emergency medical serviceEMSambulance service
It encompasses pre-hospital trauma assessment and care by emergency medical services personnel, emergency department assessment, treatment, stabilization, and in-hospital care among all age groups.
They have a particular advantage for major trauma injuries.

Pelvic fracture

broken pelvisfractured pelvispelvis
Early deaths occur within minutes to hours and often are due to hemorrhages in the outer meningeal layer of the brain, torn arteries, blood around the lungs, air around the lungs, ruptured spleen, liver laceration, or pelvic fracture.
In younger people significant trauma is typically required while in older people less significant trauma can result in a fracture.

Shock (circulatory)

shockcirculatory shocktraumatic shock
Surgical techniques, using a tube or catheter to drain fluid from the peritoneum, chest, or the pericardium around the heart, often are used in cases of severe blunt trauma to the chest or abdomen, especially when a person is experiencing early signs of shock.
Vasopressors have not been found to improve outcomes when used for hemorrhagic shock from trauma but may be of use in neurogenic shock.

Mean arterial pressure

mean arterial blood pressuremean arterial pressure (MAP)
Targets include a mean arterial pressure of 60 mmHg, a systolic blood pressure of 70–90 mmHg, or the re-establishment of peripheral pulses and adequate ability to think.
Both have been shown advantageous targets for sepsis, major trauma, stroke, intracranial bleed, and hypertensive emergencies.

Gunshot wound

Gunshot woundsBallistic traumashot
There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds, and gunshot wounds.

Disability

disableddisabilitieshandicapped
Major trauma is any injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.

Blunt trauma

blunt force traumabluntblunt-force trauma
There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds, and gunshot wounds.

Penetrating trauma

penetratingpuncture woundpenetrating injury
There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds, and gunshot wounds.

Falling (accident)

fallfallsfalling
There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds, and gunshot wounds.

Stab wound

stab woundsstabbing woundsstabbings
There are many causes of major trauma, blunt and penetrating, including falls, motor vehicle collisions, stabbing wounds, and gunshot wounds.

Injury Severity Score

critically injuredInjury Severity Scoresserious injuries
For research purposes the definition often is based on an injury severity score (ISS) of greater than 15.

Demography

demographicdemographicsdemographer
Trauma also may be classified by demographic group, such as age or gender.

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

International Classification of DiseasesICDICD-9
For research purposes injury may be classified using the Barell matrix, which is based on [[International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems#ICD-9-CM|ICD-9-CM]].

Polytrauma

Poly traumamulti-systems traumamultiple
Major trauma sometimes is classified by body area; injuries affecting 40% are polytrauma, 30% head injuries, 20% chest trauma, 10%, abdominal trauma, and 2%, extremity trauma.

Head injury

head traumahead injurieshead
Major trauma sometimes is classified by body area; injuries affecting 40% are polytrauma, 30% head injuries, 20% chest trauma, 10%, abdominal trauma, and 2%, extremity trauma.

Chest injury

chest traumapulmonary injurychest
Major trauma sometimes is classified by body area; injuries affecting 40% are polytrauma, 30% head injuries, 20% chest trauma, 10%, abdominal trauma, and 2%, extremity trauma.

Abdominal trauma

abdominal injuriesabdominalabdominal injury
Early deaths occur within minutes to hours and often are due to hemorrhages in the outer meningeal layer of the brain, torn arteries, blood around the lungs, air around the lungs, ruptured spleen, liver laceration, or pelvic fracture. Major trauma sometimes is classified by body area; injuries affecting 40% are polytrauma, 30% head injuries, 20% chest trauma, 10%, abdominal trauma, and 2%, extremity trauma.

Limb (anatomy)

limblimbsextremities
Major trauma sometimes is classified by body area; injuries affecting 40% are polytrauma, 30% head injuries, 20% chest trauma, 10%, abdominal trauma, and 2%, extremity trauma.

Triage

triagingcurable and incurableMass Casualty
The value may be used for triaging a patient or for statistical analysis.

Comorbidity

comorbidcomorbiditiesco-morbid
Injury scales measure damage to anatomical parts, physiological values (blood pressure etc.), comorbidities, or a combination of those.