Majorian

Flavius Julius Valerius MajorianusJulius Majorianus AugustusMajorien
Flavius Julius Valerius Majorianus (c. AD 420 – August 7, 461), usually known simply as Majorian, was the Western Roman Emperor from 457 to 461.wikipedia
190 Related Articles

Battle of Arelate

Defeating king Theodoric II at the Battle of Arelate, Majorian forced the Goths to abandon their possessions in Septimania and Hispania and return to federate status immediately.
The Battle of Arelate was fought in 458 near Arelate (Arles) between Western Roman Emperor Majorian and Visigothic king Theodoric II.

Aegidius

He followed Aetius to Gallia, where he met under Aetius' command two officers of barbarian origin who were to play an important role in Majorian's life: the Suevic-Visigoth Ricimer and the Gaul Aegidius. The Emperor personally led the army, leaving Ricimer in Italy and choosing Aegidius and the magister militiae Nepotianus as collaborators. Silver coinage was issued almost exclusively by the Gallic mints; it has been suggested that these series were not issued by Majorian, but by Aegidius after the Emperor's death, to mark the fact that he did not recognize his successor, Libius Severus.
An ardent supporter of Majorian, Aegidius rebelled against Ricimer when he assassinated Majorian and replaced him with Libius Severus; Aegidius may have pledged his allegiance to Leo I, the Eastern Roman Emperor.

Ricimer

Flavius Ricimer
He followed Aetius to Gallia, where he met under Aetius' command two officers of barbarian origin who were to play an important role in Majorian's life: the Suevic-Visigoth Ricimer and the Gaul Aegidius. The powerful general Ricimer deposed and killed Majorian, who had become unpopular with the senatorial aristocracy because of his reforms. Majorian played the role of the candidate for the throne of Licinia Eudoxia, Valentinian's widow, and of Ricimer, who reserved for himself a role similar to Aetius'. The Emperor personally led the army, leaving Ricimer in Italy and choosing Aegidius and the magister militiae Nepotianus as collaborators.
According to Sidonius Apollinaris, Ricimer served under the magister militum Flavius Aetius alongside the comes domesticorum Majorian, whom he befriended.

Avitus

EparchiusEparchius AvitusM. Maecilius Eparchius Avitus Augustus
A prominent general of the Late Roman army, Majorian deposed Emperor Avitus in 457 and succeeded him. The Eastern court was not displeased with the deposition of Avitus, an Emperor chosen by the Visigoths, whereas the only other candidate, Olybrius, had a politically difficult relationship with the Vandal king Genseric and no influence on the army.
The new Emperor needed the support of both the civil institutions, the Roman senate and the Eastern Roman Emperor Marcian, as well as that of the army and its commanders (the generals Majorian and Ricimer) and the Vandals of Gaiseric.

Kingdom of the Suebi

SuebiSuebic KingdomGalicia
His generals launched a campaign against the Suebic Kingdom in northwest Hispania, defeating them at the battles of Lucus Augusti and Scallabis and reducing them to federate status as well.
Theodoric continued his war on the Suevi for three months, but in April 459 he returned to Gaul, alarmed by the political and military movements of the new emperor, Majorian, and of the magister militum Ricimer—a half-Sueve, maybe a kinsman of Rechiar —while his allies and the rest of the Goths sacked Astorga, Palencia and other places, on their way back to the Pyrenees.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
Majorian was the last emperor to make a concerted effort to restore the Western Roman Empire with its own forces.
The prominent general Majorian defeated an invading force of Alemanni and was subsequently proclaimed Western Emperor by the army and eventually accepted as such by Leo.

Placidia

Galla PlacidiaGalla Placidia Valentiniana Minor
Around 450, the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III considered the possibility of marrying his daughter Placidia to Majorian.
Originally Emperor Valentinian intended to marry Placidia to a young man named Majorian (the future emperor), whom Oost describes as having "distinguished himself in a subaltern capacity fighting in Gaul against the Franks under Aëtius' own command." Doing so, according to Roman customs, would instantly link Majorian to the Imperial family and put him in line to succeed Valentinian.

Theodoric II

Theoderic IITheodoricTheodoric II of the Ostrogoths
Defeating king Theodoric II at the Battle of Arelate, Majorian forced the Goths to abandon their possessions in Septimania and Hispania and return to federate status immediately.
In late 458 the Western Roman Emperor, Majorian entered Septimania to attack Theodoric and reclaim the province for the empire.

Sidonius Apollinaris

SidoniusGaius Sollius Modestus Apollinaris SidoniusGaius Sollius Apollinaris Sidonius
The Gallo-Roman aristocrat and poet Sidonius Apollinaris was an acquaintance of the Emperor and composed a panegyric that is the major source for Majorian's life up to 459.
In 457 Majorian deprived Avitus of the empire and seized the city of Lyons; Sidonius fell into his hands.

Franks

FrankishFrankFrankish kingdom
Majorian distinguished himself in the defence of the city of Turonensis (modern Tours) and in a battle against the Franks of king Clodio, near Vicus Helena (447 or 448).
Aegidius, was originally the magister militum of northern Gaul appointed by Majorian, but after Majorian's death apparently seen as a Roman rebel who relied on Frankish forces.

Vandals

VandalVandalicVandal Kingdom
After defeating a Vandal attack on Italy, Majorian launched a campaign against the Visigothic Kingdom in southern Gaul. The Eastern court was not displeased with the deposition of Avitus, an Emperor chosen by the Visigoths, whereas the only other candidate, Olybrius, had a politically difficult relationship with the Vandal king Genseric and no influence on the army.
In 460, Majorian launched an expedition against the Vandals, but was defeated at the Battle of Cartagena.

Flavius Aetius

AetiusAëtiusEzio
The daughter of the magister militum then married an officer, probably called Domninus, who administered the finances of Aetius, the powerful magister militum of the West.
The foederati were stopped in an ambush near Vicus Helena, where Aetius directed the operations while his commander Majorian (later Emperor) fought with the cavalry.

Gaiseric

GeisericGeiserikGenseric
The Eastern court was not displeased with the deposition of Avitus, an Emperor chosen by the Visigoths, whereas the only other candidate, Olybrius, had a politically difficult relationship with the Vandal king Genseric and no influence on the army.
Subsequently, the King defeated two major efforts by the Romans to overthrow him, that of the emperor Majorian in 460 or 461 and that led by Basiliscus at the Battle of Cape Bon in 468.

Licinia Eudoxia

EudociaEmpress Eudoxiadue
Majorian played the role of the candidate for the throne of Licinia Eudoxia, Valentinian's widow, and of Ricimer, who reserved for himself a role similar to Aetius'.
Eudoxia promoted her own candidate, in the person of Majorian.

Olybrius

Anicius OlybriusFlavius Anicius Olybrius
The Eastern court was not displeased with the deposition of Avitus, an Emperor chosen by the Visigoths, whereas the only other candidate, Olybrius, had a politically difficult relationship with the Vandal king Genseric and no influence on the army.
After Petronius, the Gallic-Roman senator Avitus was proclaimed Emperor by the Visigoth king Theodoric II and ruled for two years; he was deposed by Majorian, who ruled for four years before being killed by his general Ricimer in 461.

Nepotianus (magister militiae)

Nepotianus
The Emperor personally led the army, leaving Ricimer in Italy and choosing Aegidius and the magister militiae Nepotianus as collaborators. The campaign started with an operation against the Suebi in North-Western Hispania, lasting the whole of 459, led by the magister militiae Nepotianus and the Gothic comes Sunieric.
In 458 he was comes et magister utriusque militiae and together with Aegidius, he commanded the army of the Western Emperor, Majorian.

Petronius Maximus

PetroniusFlavius Petronius MaximusMaximus
In the end, the new Emperor was Petronius Maximus, a senator involved in Valentinian's murder, who outmanoeuvred the other candidates.
In particular, the army’s support was split among three main candidates: Maximianus, the former domesticus (bodyguard) of Aëtius, who was the son of an Egyptian merchant named Domninus who had become rich in Italy; the future emperor Majorian, who commanded the army after the death of Aetius and who had the backing of the Empress Licinia Eudoxia; and Maximus himself, who had the support of the Roman Senate and who secured the throne on 17 March by distributing money to the officials of the imperial palace.

Marcellinus (magister militum)

Marcellinus
It was probably during the preparation of this operation that Majorian sent the comes and patricius Occidentis Marcellinus to Sicily with an army of Huns, to take the island back from the Vandals.
He appears to have remained ruler of Dalmatia down to 468 and to have preserved his independence except for briefly accepting the authority of the Emperors Majorian and Anthemius.

Chlodio

Clodion
Majorian distinguished himself in the defence of the city of Turonensis (modern Tours) and in a battle against the Franks of king Clodio, near Vicus Helena (447 or 448).
This is known because the future emperor Majorian was present, and this incident was therefore celebrated in the panegyric written by Sidonius Apollinaris for him.

Sunieric

The campaign started with an operation against the Suebi in North-Western Hispania, lasting the whole of 459, led by the magister militiae Nepotianus and the Gothic comes Sunieric.
Sunieric (Latin: Suniericus; fl 459-461) was a Visigoth general, who collaborated with the Roman army in the re-conquest of Spain on behalf of Emperor Majorian.

Alemanni

AlemannicAlamannicAlamanni
While the situation was in a precarious equilibrium, a troop of 900 Alemanni invaded Italy.
457, Battle of Campi Cannini, Alemanni invade Italy and are defeated near Lake Maggiore by Majorian

Caecina Decius Basilius

Basilius
Novella Maioriani 2, De indulgentiis reliquorum, "On the Remission of Past-Due Accounts" (given in Ravenna, on March 11, 458, to Basilius, Praetorian prefect of Italy);
He was Praetorian prefect of Italy in 458, under Emperor Majorian.

Battle of Garigliano (457)

Battle of Gariglianodefeateddefeats
Majorian personally led the Roman army to a victory over the invaders near Sinuessa and followed the defeated Vandals, loaded with their booty, as far as their own ships, killing many of them including their commander.
In 457, the new emperor Majorian surprised a Vandal-Berber raiding party which was returning with loot from Campania.

Libius Severus

SeverusFlavius '''Libius [Severus]''' Serpentius AugustusFlavius Libius Severus Serpentius
Silver coinage was issued almost exclusively by the Gallic mints; it has been suggested that these series were not issued by Majorian, but by Aegidius after the Emperor's death, to mark the fact that he did not recognize his successor, Libius Severus.
On August 7, 461, the magister militum (commander in chief) of the Western Roman army, Ricimer, had Emperor Majorian killed, thus leaving the western throne empty.

Battle of Campi Cannini

defeated
There they were intercepted and defeated by the troops of comes Burco, sent by Majorian to stop them:
At nearby Campi Cannini, the Alemanni were defeated by the Roman general Majorian.