Malabsorption

malabsorption syndromeintestinal malabsorptionmalabsorption of nutrientsmalabsorption syndromespoor absorptionblock absorptiondecreased absorptionimpaired absorptioninsufficient absorptioninterferes with the absorption
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.wikipedia
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Coeliac disease

celiac diseasecoeliacceliac
However, generalized malabsorption of multiple dietary nutrients develops when the disease process is extensive, thus disturbing several digestive and absorptive processes, as occurs in coeliac disease with extensive involvement of the small intestine. OGD to detect duodenal pathology and obtain D2 biopsy (for coeliac disease, tropical sprue, Whipple's disease, abetalipoproteinaemia etc.)
Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite and among children failure to grow normally.

Vitamin B12

vitamin B 12 cobalaminB12
Microcytic, macrocytic, or dimorphic anemia may reflect impaired iron, folate, or vitamin B12 absorption. Anaemias, commonly from vitamin B 12, folic acid and iron deficiency presenting as fatigue and weakness.
The most common cause of vitamin B 12 deficiency in developed countries is impaired absorption due to a loss of gastric intrinsic factor, which must be bound to food-source B 12 in order for absorption to occur.

Crohn's disease

Crohn’s diseasechronCrohn
For example, pain is common in patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer and Crohn's disease, but it is absent in many patients with coeliac disease or postgastrectomy malabsorption.
People with extensive small intestine disease may also have malabsorption of carbohydrates or lipids, which can further exacerbate weight loss.

Steatorrhea

steatorrhoeafatty stoolfatty feces
On the other hand, stool mass is invariably increased in patients with steatorrhea and generalized malabsorption above the normal with 150–200 g/day. Fecal fat study to diagnose steatorrhoea is rarely performed nowadays.
Possible causes include exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, with poor digestion from lack of lipases, loss of bile salts, which reduces micelle formation, and small intestinal disease producing malabsorption.

Tropical sprue

spruesprue, tropical
OGD to detect duodenal pathology and obtain D2 biopsy (for coeliac disease, tropical sprue, Whipple's disease, abetalipoproteinaemia etc.)
Tropical sprue is a malabsorption disease commonly found in tropical regions, marked with abnormal flattening of the villi and inflammation of the lining of the small intestine.

Whipple's disease

whipple diseaseTropheryma whippleiIntestinal lipodystrophy
OGD to detect duodenal pathology and obtain D2 biopsy (for coeliac disease, tropical sprue, Whipple's disease, abetalipoproteinaemia etc.)
First described by George Hoyt Whipple in 1907 and commonly considered a gastrointestinal disorder, Whipple's disease primarily causes malabsorption but may affect any part of the body including the heart, brain, joints, skin, lungs and the eyes.

Short bowel syndrome

short gut syndromeshort-gut syndrome
Short bowel syndrome (SBS, or simply short gut) is a malabsorption disorder caused by a lack of functional small intestine.

Lymphangiectasia

lymphangiectasislymphatic obstruction
Edema and even ascites may reflect hypoproteinemia associated with protein losing enteropathy caused by lymphatic obstruction or extensive mucosal inflammation.
Reduced lymph flow leads to a malabsorption syndrome of the small intestine, especially of fat and fat-soluble vitamins.

Eosinophilic gastroenteritis

eosinophilic enteritis
Mucosal EG (25–100%) is the most common variety, which presents with features of malabsorption and protein losing enteropathy. Failure to thrive and anaemia may also be present. Lower gastrointestinal bleeding may imply colonic involvement.

Iron deficiency

ironhypoferremiaconsidered deficient
Anaemias, commonly from vitamin B 12, folic acid and iron deficiency presenting as fatigue and weakness.
malabsorption syndromes

Amyloidosis

amyloidosesamyloid degenerationfamilial amyloidosis
Malabsorption is seen in 8.5% of AL amyloidosis and 2.4% of AA amyloidosis.

Coagulation

blood clottingblood coagulationclotting
Bleeding tendencies from vitamin K and other coagulation factor deficiencies.
Vitamin K deficiency from other causes (e.g., in malabsorption) or impaired vitamin K metabolism in disease (e.g., in liver failure) lead to the formation of PIVKAs (proteins formed in vitamin K absence) which are partially or totally non-gamma carboxylated, affecting the coagulation factors' ability to bind to phospholipid.

Fructose malabsorption

fructose intolerancefructoseDietary fructose intolerance
Fructose malabsorption
Simultaneous ingestion of fructose and sorbitol seems to increase malabsorption of fructose.

Giardiasis

Giardialambliasisacute giardiasis.
Prolonged disease is often characterized by diarrhea along with malabsorption of nutrients in the intestine.

Chronic pancreatitis

chronicChronic hemorrhagic pancreatitispancreatitis, chronic
It can present as episodes of acute inflammation in a previously injured pancreas, or as chronic damage with persistent pain or malabsorption.

Diarrhea

diarrhoeadiarrheal diseaseschronic diarrhea
Diarrhea, weight loss, flatulence, abdominal bloating, abdominal cramps, and pain may be present.
Malabsorption is the inability to absorb food fully, mostly from disorders in the small bowel, but also due to maldigestion from diseases of the pancreas.

Osteoporosis

bone lossosteoporoticpostmenopausal osteoporosis
Muscle cramp from decreased vitamin D, calcium absorption. Also lead to osteomalacia and osteoporosis
Malnutrition, parenteral nutrition and malabsorption can lead to osteoporosis. Nutritional and gastrointestinal disorders that can predispose to osteoporosis include undiagnosed and untreated coeliac disease (both symptomatic and asymptomatic people), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, surgery (after gastrectomy, intestinal bypass surgery or bowel resection) and severe liver disease (especially primary biliary cirrhosis). People with lactose intolerance or milk allergy may develop osteoporosis due to restrictions of calcium-containing foods. Individuals with bulimia can also develop osteoporosis. Those with an otherwise adequate calcium intake can develop osteoporosis due to the inability to absorb calcium and/or vitamin D. Other micronutrients such as vitamin K or vitamin B 12 deficiency may also contribute.

Vitamin K

KVitamin K 1 Menaquinone
Bleeding tendencies from vitamin K and other coagulation factor deficiencies.
Previous theory held that dietary deficiency is extremely rare unless the small intestine was heavily damaged, resulting in malabsorption of the molecule.

Bariatric surgery

weight loss surgeryBariatricbody contouring
Some procedures block absorption of food, although they also reduce stomach size.

Malnutrition

malnourishednutritional deficienciesmalnourishment
This may lead to malnutrition and a variety of anaemias.

Systemic scleroderma

systemic sclerosisprogressive systemic sclerosisDiffuse systemic sclerosis
The small intestine can also become involved, leading to bacterial overgrowth and malabsorption of bile salts, fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and vitamins.

Cystic fibrosis

CFCystic fibrosis of the pancreasdisease
The lack of digestive enzymes leads to difficulty absorbing nutrients with their subsequent excretion in the feces, a disorder known as malabsorption.

Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Coeliac disease is a common form of malabsorption, affecting up to 1% of people of northern European descent. An autoimmune response is triggered in intestinal cells by digestion of gluten proteins. Ingestion of proteins found in wheat, barley and rye, causes villous atrophy in the small intestine. Lifelong dietary avoidance of these foodstuffs in a gluten-free diet is the only treatment.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
Anaemias, commonly from vitamin B 12, folic acid and iron deficiency presenting as fatigue and weakness. This may lead to malnutrition and a variety of anaemias.
Megaloblastic anemia, the most common cause of macrocytic anemia, is due to a deficiency of either vitamin B 12, folic acid, or both. Deficiency in folate or vitamin B 12 can be due either to inadequate intake or insufficient absorption. Folate deficiency normally does not produce neurological symptoms, while B 12 deficiency does.

Fecal fat test

fecal fatFecal fat study
Fecal fat study to diagnose steatorrhoea is rarely performed nowadays.
In medicine, the fecal fat test is a diagnostic test for fat malabsorption conditions, which lead to excess fat in the feces (steatorrhea).