Malaria

cerebral malariamalarial fevermalarialmalariologistmalariologyagueantimalarialfalciparum malariamalariouspaludism
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.wikipedia
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Mosquito-borne disease

mosquito-borne diseasesspreadmosquito
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.
Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, chikungunya, yellow fever, filariasis, tularemia, dirofilariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River fever, Barmah Forest fever, La Crosse encephalitis, and Zika fever, as well as newly detected Keystone virus and Rift Valley fever.

Parasitism

parasiteparasiticparasites
The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito's saliva into a person's blood.
Parasites include protozoans such as the agents of malaria, sleeping sickness, and amoebic dysentery; animals such as hookworms, lice, mosquitoes, and vampire bats; fungi such as honey fungus and the agents of ringworm; and plants such as mistletoe, dodder, and the broomrapes.

Anopheles

AnophelinaeAnopheles quadrimaculatusanopheline
The disease is most commonly spread by an infected female Anopheles mosquito.
About 460 species are recognised; while over 100 can transmit human malaria, only 30–40 commonly transmit parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which cause malaria in humans in endemic areas.

Plasmodium

antiplasmodialplasmodiamalaria parasite
It is caused by single-celled microorganisms of the Plasmodium group.
The ensuing destruction of host red blood cells can result in disease, called malaria.

Plasmodium knowlesi

P. knowlesi
The species P. knowlesi rarely causes disease in humans.
Plasmodium knowlesi is a parasite that causes malaria in humans and other primates.

Plasmodium falciparum

P. falciparumfalciparumblood stage
Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum because P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria.
Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans.

Plasmodium vivax

P. vivaxHaemamoeba vivaxhuman malarial parasites
Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum because P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria.
This parasite is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of recurring malaria.

Plasmodium malariae

P. malariaequartan aguequartan fever
Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum because P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria.
Plasmodium malariae is a parasitic protozoan that causes malaria in humans.

Mosquito control

mosquito abatementclean up places where mosquitoes could lay eggscontrol mosquitoes
The risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets and insect repellents, or with mosquito control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water.
Mosquito control is a vital public-health practice throughout the world and especially in the tropics because mosquitoes spread many diseases, such as malaria and the Zika virus.

Plasmodium ovale

P. ovaleP.ovalePlasmodium ovale curtisi
Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum because P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria.
Plasmodium ovale is a species of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans.

Insect repellent

repellentmosquito repellentbug spray
The risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets and insect repellents, or with mosquito control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water.
Insect repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne (and other arthropod-bourne) diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, dengue fever, bubonic plague, river blindness and West Nile fever.

Malaria prophylaxis

medication for preventionprevent malaria
Several medications are available to prevent malaria in travellers to areas where the disease is common.
Malaria prophylaxis is the preventive treatment of malaria.

Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine

Fansidarsulfadoxine-pyrimethaminecombination
Occasional doses of the combination medication sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine are recommended in infants and after the first trimester of pregnancy in areas with high rates of malaria.
Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, sold under the brandname Fansidar, is a combination medication used to treat malaria.

Malaria antigen detection tests

antigen-basedMalaria Rapid Diagnostic Testsmalaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs)
Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests.
Malaria antigen detection tests are a group of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests of the rapid antigen test type that allow quick diagnosis of malaria by people who are not otherwise skilled in traditional laboratory techniques for diagnosing malaria or in situations where such equipment is not available.

Quinine

ChinineQuinologistBromo Quinine
Quinine along with doxycycline may be used if an artemisinin is not available.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.

Mefloquine

Lariam
The second medication may be either mefloquine, lumefantrine, or sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.
Mefloquine, sold under the brand names Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria.

Artemisinin

artemisininsqinghaosua novel therapy
The recommended treatment for malaria is a combination of antimalarial medications that includes an artemisinin.
Artemisinin and its semisynthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used against malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum.

Chloroquine

Aralenchloroquine resistanceImagon (drug)
Resistance among the parasites has developed to several antimalarial medications; for example, chloroquine-resistant ''P.
Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects.

Blood film

blood smearperipheral blood smearblood smears
Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests.
Blood films are examined in the investigation of hematological (blood) disorders and are routinely employed to look for blood parasites, such as those of malaria and filariasis.

Water stagnation

stagnant waterstanding waterstagnant
The risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets and insect repellents, or with mosquito control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water.
Malaria and dengue are among the main dangers of stagnant water, which can become a breeding ground for the mosquitoes that transmit these diseases.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms.
The top three single agent/disease killers are HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria.

Jaundice

Obstructive jaundiceicteruscholestatic jaundice
In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death.
In the developed world, the cause is more often blockage of the bile duct or medications; in the developing world, it is more often infections such as viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, or malaria.

Mosquito net

mosquito netsbed netsbed net
The risk of disease can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites through the use of mosquito nets and insect repellents, or with mosquito control measures such as spraying insecticides and draining standing water.
Examples of such preventable insect-borne diseases include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, zika virus and various forms of encephalitis, including the West Nile virus.

Doxycycline

doxycycline hyclatedoxycyclinPeriostat
Quinine along with doxycycline may be used if an artemisinin is not available.
It is also used to prevent malaria and in combination with quinine, to treat malaria.

Medication

pharmaceuticalpharmaceuticalspharmaceutical drug
Several medications are available to prevent malaria in travellers to areas where the disease is common.