Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Endemic range of yellow fever in Africa (2005)
Main symptoms of malaria
Endemic range of yellow fever in South America (2005)
Mosquito head
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Image of pitcher plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii, showing segmentation and partial anatomy of circulatory system
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a mosquito egg
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
An egg raft of a Culex species, partly broken, showing individual egg shapes
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Anatomy of a Culex larva
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
Anatomy of an adult mosquito
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Adult yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, typical of subfamily Culicinae. Note bushy antennae and longer palps of male on left vs. females at right.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Aedes aegypti, a common vector of dengue fever and yellow fever
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
Mosquitoes feeding on a reptile
A mosquito net in use.
Here an Anopheles stephensi female is engorged with blood and beginning to pass unwanted liquid fractions of the blood to make room in its gut for more of the solid nutrients.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Female Ochlerotatus notoscriptus feeding on a human arm, Tasmania, Australia
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Anopheles albimanus mosquito feeding on a human arm – this mosquito is the sole vector of malaria, and mosquito control is a very effective way of reducing the incidence of malaria.
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, a natural mosquito predator
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
A warning sign about mosquitoes in Sodankylä, Finland
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
A still from Winsor McCay's pioneering 1912 animated film How a Mosquito Operates
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Anopheles larva from southern Germany, about 8 mm long
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
Culex larva and pupa
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Culex larvae plus one pupa
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

- Malaria

Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes.

- Mosquito-borne disease

Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, chikungunya, yellow fever, filariasis, tularemia, dirofilariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River fever, Barmah Forest fever, La Crosse encephalitis, and Zika fever, as well as newly detected Keystone virus and Rift Valley fever.

- Mosquito-borne disease

Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.

- Malaria

In this way, mosquitoes are important vectors of parasitic diseases such as malaria and filariasis, and arboviral diseases such as yellow fever, Chikungunya, West Nile, dengue fever, and Zika.

- Mosquito

Jarvis, Brooke, "Buzz Off: They've ravaged humanity and derailed history. And mosquitoes aren't finished yet", The New Yorker, 5 & 12 August 2019, pp. 69–71. "[H]istorian Timothy C. Winegard... estimates that mosquitoes have killed more people than any other single cause – fifty-two billion of us, nearly half of all humans who have ever lived.... Globalization is helping to spread a new generation of mosquito-borne illnesses once confined to the tropics, such as dengue... chikungunya and Zika... Meanwhile, climate change is... expanding the ranges in which mosquitoes and the diseases they carry can thrive." (pp. 70–71.)

- Mosquito
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

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