Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
The screw-worm fly was the first pest successfully eliminated from an area through the sterile insect technique, by the use of an integrated area-wide approach.
Mosquito head
Main symptoms of malaria
Entomologist Edward F. Knipling
Image of pitcher plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii, showing segmentation and partial anatomy of circulatory system
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
The map shows the current (orange) and former (yellow) distribution area and the approximate seasonal spread of the screw-worm fly.
Electron micrograph of a mosquito egg
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
An egg raft of a Culex species, partly broken, showing individual egg shapes
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
Anatomy of a Culex larva
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Anatomy of an adult mosquito
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
Adult yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, typical of subfamily Culicinae. Note bushy antennae and longer palps of male on left vs. females at right.
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Aedes aegypti, a common vector of dengue fever and yellow fever
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Mosquitoes feeding on a reptile
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
Here an Anopheles stephensi female is engorged with blood and beginning to pass unwanted liquid fractions of the blood to make room in its gut for more of the solid nutrients.
A mosquito net in use.
Female Ochlerotatus notoscriptus feeding on a human arm, Tasmania, Australia
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Anopheles albimanus mosquito feeding on a human arm – this mosquito is the sole vector of malaria, and mosquito control is a very effective way of reducing the incidence of malaria.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis, a natural mosquito predator
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
A warning sign about mosquitoes in Sodankylä, Finland
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
A still from Winsor McCay's pioneering 1912 animated film How a Mosquito Operates
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Anopheles larva from southern Germany, about 8 mm long
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Culex larva and pupa
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
Culex larvae plus one pupa
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
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The released insects are preferably male, as this is more cost-effective and the females may in some situations cause damage by laying eggs in the crop, or, in the case of mosquitoes, taking blood from humans.

- Sterile insect technique

Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected mosquito.

- Malaria

In this way, mosquitoes are important vectors of parasitic diseases such as malaria and filariasis, and arboviral diseases such as yellow fever, Chikungunya, West Nile, dengue fever, and Zika.

- Mosquito

Anopheles mosquito – malaria vector, example Anopheles arabiensis.

- Sterile insect technique

Another approach is to introduce large numbers of sterile males.

- Mosquito

Sterile insect technique is a genetic control method whereby large numbers of sterile male mosquitoes are reared and released.

- Malaria

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Anopheles egg
Anopheles larva from southern Germany, about 8 mm long
Feeding position of an Anopheles larva (A), compared to that of a nonanopheline mosquito (B)
Resting positions of adult Anopheles (A, B), compared to a nonanopheline mosquito (C)
Key to the morphology of female Anopheles

Anopheles is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818.

About 460 species are recognised; while over 100 can transmit human malaria, only 30–40 commonly transmit parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which cause malaria in humans in endemic areas.

This research suggests using the sterile insect technique, in which sexually sterile male insects are released to wipe out a pest population, could be a solution to the problem of malaria in Africa.