A report on Malaria and Quinine

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Main symptoms of malaria
Tonic water, in normal light and ultraviolet "black light". The quinine content of tonic water causes it to fluoresce under black light.
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Quinine biosynthesis
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
19th-century illustration of Cinchona calisaya
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
no data
<10
0–100
100–500
500–1000
1000–1500
1500–2000
2000–2500
2500–2750
2750–3000
3000–3250
3250–3500
≥3500

Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.

- Quinine

Quinine, along with doxycycline, may be used if artemisinin is not available.

- Malaria
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

8 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Plasmodium falciparum

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Laveran's drawing of various stages of P. falciparum as seen on fresh blood (1880).
Blood smear from a P. falciparum culture (K1 strain - asexual forms) - several red blood cells have ring stages inside them. Close to the center is a schizont and on the left a trophozoite.
Ring forms in red blood cells (Giemsa stain)
Life cycle of Plasmodium

Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans.

Gize (1816) studied the extraction of crystalline quinine from the cinchona bark and Pelletier and Caventou (1820) in France extracted pure quinine alkaloids, which they named quinine and cinchonine.

Figure 1. Biosynthesis of Artemisinin

Artemisinin

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Figure 1. Biosynthesis of Artemisinin
Artemisia annua

Artemisinin and its semisynthetic derivatives are a group of drugs used in the treatment of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum.

Instead the WHO recommends a seven-day course of clindamycin and quinine.

Chloroquine

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Medical quinolines
Hemozoin formation in P. falciparum: many antimalarials are strong inhibitors of hemozoin crystal growth.
Resochin tablet package

Chloroquine is a medication primarily used to prevent and treat malaria in areas where malaria remains sensitive to its effects.

It and related quinines have been associated with cases of retinal toxicity, particularly when provided at higher doses for longer times.

Cinchona

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Genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs.

Genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs.

Cortex peruvianus study by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 1706
Cinchona officinalis, the harvested bark
Peru offers a branch of cinchona to science (from a 17th-century engraving).
A 19th-century illustration of Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona pubescens fruit
General structure of Cinchona alkaloids

Cinchona has been historically sought after for its medicinal value, as the bark of several species yields quinine and other alkaloids that were the only effective treatments against malaria during the height of European colonialism, which made them of great economic and political importance.

Cinchona bark

Jesuit's bark

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Cinchona bark
Cinchona tree
Sebastiano Bado's book on the Chinchona
Peruvian bark plantation in India 1864''

Jesuit's bark, also known as cinchona bark, Peruvian bark or China bark, is a former remedy for malaria, as the bark contains quinine used to treat the disease.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

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Most common enzyme deficiency worldwide, is an inborn error of metabolism that predisposes to red blood cell breakdown.

Most common enzyme deficiency worldwide, is an inborn error of metabolism that predisposes to red blood cell breakdown.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
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Certain medicines including aspirin, quinine and other antimalarials derived from quinine.

A side effect of this disease is that it confers protection against malaria, in particular the form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly form of malaria.

Blackwater fever

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Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria infection in which red blood cells burst in the bloodstream (hemolysis), releasing hemoglobin directly into the blood vessels and into the urine, frequently leading to kidney failure.

It may be that quinine plays a role in triggering the condition, and this drug is no longer commonly used for malaria prophylaxis.

Gin and tonic with lime wedge

Gin and tonic

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Highball cocktail made with gin and tonic water poured over a large amount of ice.

Highball cocktail made with gin and tonic water poured over a large amount of ice.

Gin and tonic with lime wedge
Gin and tonic made with Bombay Sapphire London Dry Gin and Schweppes Indian Tonic, garnished with slices of lime
A gin and tonic with ice and lemon wedge
Gin and tonic made from Estonian Crafter's Gin. The botanicals in the gin have turned the drink pink in colour
A Spanish gin tonic served in a balloon glass

In the India subcontinent and other tropical regions, malaria was a persistent problem for Europeans, and in the 18th century, Scottish doctor George Cleghorn studied how quinine, a traditional cure for malaria, could be used to prevent the disease.