A report on Malaria

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Main symptoms of malaria
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
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<10
0–100
100–500
500–1000
1000–1500
1500–2000
2000–2500
2500–2750
2750–3000
3000–3250
3250–3500
≥3500

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

- Malaria
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

148 related topics with Alpha

Overall

CT scan in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, showing splenomegaly. Yellow arrows point at the spleen.

Splenomegaly

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Enlargement of the spleen.

Enlargement of the spleen.

CT scan in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia, showing splenomegaly. Yellow arrows point at the spleen.
Maximum dimension of the spleen on abdominal ultrasonography.
Normal spleen (in green)

malaria

An 1831 color lithograph by Robert Seymour depicts cholera as a robed, skeletal creature emanating a deadly black cloud.

Miasma theory

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Obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, Ancient Greek for 'pollution'), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.

Obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, Ancient Greek for 'pollution'), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.

An 1831 color lithograph by Robert Seymour depicts cholera as a robed, skeletal creature emanating a deadly black cloud.
Book of Sebastian Petrycy published in Kraków in 1613 about prevention against "bad air".

The idea also gave rise to the name malaria (literally 'bad air') through medieval Italian.

Cinchona bark

Jesuit's bark

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Cinchona bark
Cinchona tree
Sebastiano Bado's book on the Chinchona
Peruvian bark plantation in India 1864''

Jesuit's bark, also known as cinchona bark, Peruvian bark or China bark, is a former remedy for malaria, as the bark contains quinine used to treat the disease.

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Gene drive

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Natural process and technology of genetic engineering that propagates a particular suite of genes throughout a population by altering the probability that a specific allele will be transmitted to offspring .

Natural process and technology of genetic engineering that propagates a particular suite of genes throughout a population by altering the probability that a specific allele will be transmitted to offspring .

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Molecular mechanism of gene drive.

Proposed applications include exterminating insects that carry pathogens (notably mosquitoes that transmit malaria, dengue, and zika pathogens), controlling invasive species, or eliminating herbicide or pesticide resistance.

Blantyre coma scale

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The Blantyre coma scale is a modification of the Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale, designed to assess malarial coma in children.

A child with smallpox. In 1980, the World Health Organization announced the global eradication of smallpox. It is the only human disease to be eradicated worldwide.

Eradication of infectious diseases

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Reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.

Reduction of an infectious disease's prevalence in the global host population to zero.

A child with smallpox. In 1980, the World Health Organization announced the global eradication of smallpox. It is the only human disease to be eradicated worldwide.
Boy with smallpox (1969). The last natural smallpox case was of Ali Maow Maalin, in Merca, Somalia, on 26 October 1977.
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Rabies-free countries and territories as of 2018

There are four ongoing programs, targeting the human diseases poliomyelitis (polio), yaws, dracunculiasis (Guinea worm), and malaria.

Hunting in the Pontine Marshes, oil on canvas by Horace Vernet, 1833

Pontine Marshes

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Approximately quadrangular area of former marshland in the Lazio Region of central Italy, extending along the coast southeast of Rome about 45 km from just east of Anzio to Terracina (ancient Tarracina), varying in distance inland between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Volscian Mountains (the Monti Lepini in the north, the Monti Ausoni in the center, and the Monti Aurunci in the south) from 15 to 25 km. The northwestern border runs approximately from the mouth of the river Astura along the river and from its upper reaches to Cori in the Monti Lepini.

Approximately quadrangular area of former marshland in the Lazio Region of central Italy, extending along the coast southeast of Rome about 45 km from just east of Anzio to Terracina (ancient Tarracina), varying in distance inland between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Volscian Mountains (the Monti Lepini in the north, the Monti Ausoni in the center, and the Monti Aurunci in the south) from 15 to 25 km. The northwestern border runs approximately from the mouth of the river Astura along the river and from its upper reaches to Cori in the Monti Lepini.

Hunting in the Pontine Marshes, oil on canvas by Horace Vernet, 1833
Lake Fogliano, a coastal lagoon in the Pontine Plain
Terracina today, looking northward at the promontory: The former marsh to the right of it stretches over the horizon. In the lower right corner, the Volscian Mountains descend to the edge of the narrow strip on which Terracina is situated.
National Park of Circeo, on the coast of the Pontine Fields: The view is an aerial photograph. Visible in the foreground is Lago di Fogliano, one of the laghi costieri, "coastal lagoons".

Meanwhile, frequent epidemics of malaria at Rome and elsewhere kept the reclamation issue alive.

Plasmodium ovale curtisi

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Plasmodium ovale curtisi is a subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans.

Plasmodium ovale wallikeri

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Plasmodium ovale wallikeri is a subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes tertian malaria in humans.

Malaria as a percent of Deaths in the US in 1890.

National Malaria Eradication Program

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Launched in July 1947.

Launched in July 1947.

Malaria as a percent of Deaths in the US in 1890.
Endemic malaria in the United States, 1934–35.

By 1951 this federal program—with state and local participation—had reduced the incidence of malaria in the United States to the point that the program was officially ended, though as of 2012, malaria still kills 1300–1500 people in the US every year.