A report on Malaria

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Main symptoms of malaria
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
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<10
0–100
100–500
500–1000
1000–1500
1500–2000
2000–2500
2500–2750
2750–3000
3000–3250
3250–3500
≥3500

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

- Malaria
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

148 related topics with Alpha

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Plasmodium knowlesi

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A diagram of the life cycle of Plasmodium species that infect humans
A Plasmodium knowlesi merozoite attaching to a red blood cell
Giemsa-stained thin blood smears of human red blood cells infected with Plasmodium knowlesi
Robert Knowles, after whom P. knowlesi was named

Plasmodium knowlesi is a parasite that causes malaria in humans and other primates.

Mefloquine

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Mefloquine (Lariam) 250mg tablets

Mefloquine, sold under the brand name Lariam among others, is a medication used to prevent or treat malaria.

Scanning electron micrograph of human red blood cells (ca. 6–8 μm in diameter)

Red blood cell

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Red blood cells (RBCs), also referred to as red cells, red blood corpuscles (in humans or other animals not having nucleus in red blood cells), haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

Red blood cells (RBCs), also referred to as red cells, red blood corpuscles (in humans or other animals not having nucleus in red blood cells), haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

Scanning electron micrograph of human red blood cells (ca. 6–8 μm in diameter)
There is an immense size variation in vertebrate red blood cells, as well as a correlation between cell and nucleus size. Mammalian red blood cells, which do not contain nuclei, are considerably smaller than those of most other vertebrates.
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Typical mammalian red blood cells: (a) seen from surface; (b) in profile, forming rouleaux; (c) rendered spherical by water; (d) rendered crenate (shrunken and spiky) by salt. (c) and (d) do not normally occur in the body. The last two shapes are due to water being transported into, and out of, the cells, by osmosis.
Scanning electron micrograph of blood cells. From left to right: human red blood cell, thrombocyte (platelet), leukocyte.
Two drops of blood are shown with a bright red oxygenated drop on the left and a deoxygenated drop on the right.
Animation of a typical human red blood cell cycle in the circulatory system. This animation occurs at a faster rate (~20 seconds of the average 60-second cycle) and shows the red blood cell deforming as it enters capillaries, as well as the bars changing color as the cell alternates in states of oxygenation along the circulatory system.
The most common red blood cell membrane lipids, schematically disposed as they are distributed on the bilayer. Relative abundances are not at scale.
Red blood cell membrane proteins separated by SDS-PAGE and silverstained
Red blood cell membrane major proteins
Affected by Sickle-cell disease, red blood cells alter shape and threaten to damage internal organs.
Effect of osmotic pressure on blood cells
Micrographs of the effects of osmotic pressure
Variations of red blood cell shape, overall termed poikilocytosis.

Lipid rafts that have been implicated in cell signaling events in nonerythroid cells have been shown in erythroid cells to mediate β2-adregenic receptor signaling and increase cAMP levels, and thus regulating entry of malarial parasites into normal red cells.

Mosquitoes are generally considered annoying and some species transmit diseases, thus leading to a variety of human efforts to eradicate or reduce their presence.

Mosquito control

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Mosquito control manages the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment.

Mosquito control manages the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment.

Mosquitoes are generally considered annoying and some species transmit diseases, thus leading to a variety of human efforts to eradicate or reduce their presence.
Gambusia affinis (Mosquitofish), a natural mosquito predator.
A Hygieostatic Bat Roost, custom-built to house bats for biocontrol of mosquitos
In 1958, the National Malaria Eradication Program implemented the wide-scale use of DDT for mosquito control.
Anti-mosquito fogging operation P.Ramachandrapuram Village in India
Walls on IRS-treated bathroom on the shores of Lake Victoria. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A light trap that attracts and captures mosquitoes.

Mosquito control is a vital public-health practice throughout the world and especially in the tropics because mosquitoes spread many diseases, such as malaria and the Zika virus.

Commercial product concentrate containing 50% DDT, circa 1960s

DDT

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Colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochloride.

Colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochloride.

Commercial product concentrate containing 50% DDT, circa 1960s
Commercial product of Ciba-Geigy Néocide (powder box, 50 g) containing 10% DDT, made in France.
An airplane spraying DDT over Baker County, Oregon as part of a spruce budworm control project, 1955
DDT spray log in Bosa (Sardinia)
Degradation of DDT to form DDE (by elimination of HCl, left) and DDD (by reductive dechlorination, right)
A U.S. soldier is demonstrating DDT hand-spraying equipment. DDT was used to control the spread of typhus-carrying lice.
Spraying hospital beds with DDT, PAIGC hospital of Ziguinchor, 1973
Biomagnification is the build up of toxins in a food chain. The DDT concentration is in parts per million. As the trophic level increases in a food chain, the amount of toxic build up also increases. The X's represent the amount of toxic build up accumulating as the trophic level increases. Toxins build up in organism's tissues and fat. Predators accumulate higher toxins than the prey.
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DDT was used in the second half of World War II to limit the spread of the insect-borne diseases malaria and typhus among civilians and troops.

Screened cup of malaria-infected mosquitoes which will infect a volunteer in a clinical trial

Malaria vaccine

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Screened cup of malaria-infected mosquitoes which will infect a volunteer in a clinical trial
RTS,S recombinant protein viruslike particle

A malaria vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent malaria.

Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine

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Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, sold under the brand name Fansidar, is a combination medication used to treat malaria.

Endemic range of yellow fever in Africa (2005)

Mosquito-borne disease

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Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes.

Mosquito-borne diseases or mosquito-borne illnesses are diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites transmitted by mosquitoes.

Endemic range of yellow fever in Africa (2005)
Endemic range of yellow fever in South America (2005)

Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes include malaria, dengue, West Nile virus, chikungunya, yellow fever, filariasis, tularemia, dirofilariasis, Japanese encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, Western equine encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Ross River fever, Barmah Forest fever, La Crosse encephalitis, and Zika fever, as well as newly detected Keystone virus and Rift Valley fever.

Generic 100 mg doxycycline capsules

Doxycycline

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Broad-spectrum tetracycline-class antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria and certain parasites.

Broad-spectrum tetracycline-class antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria and certain parasites.

Generic 100 mg doxycycline capsules
Doxycycline package
Tet-ON inducible shRNA system

It is also used to prevent malaria in combination with quinine.

Distribution of malaria in the world

Malaria prophylaxis

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Distribution of malaria in the world

Malaria prophylaxis is the preventive treatment of malaria.