A report on Malaria

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Main symptoms of malaria
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
no data
<10
0–100
100–500
500–1000
1000–1500
1500–2000
2000–2500
2500–2750
2750–3000
3000–3250
3250–3500
≥3500

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

- Malaria
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

148 related topics with Alpha

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A schematic diagram of a dipstick

Malaria antigen detection tests

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A schematic diagram of a dipstick
Plasmodium Glutamate dehydrogenase (pGluDH) precipitated by host antibodies
Comparison of Plasmodium Lactate Dehydrogenase (PLDH) Malaria Antibodies

Malaria antigen detection tests are a group of commercially available rapid diagnostic tests of the rapid antigen test type that allow quick diagnosis of malaria by people who are not otherwise skilled in traditional laboratory techniques for diagnosing malaria or in situations where such equipment is not available.

Primaquine

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Primaquine is a medication used to treat and prevent malaria and to treat Pneumocystis pneumonia.

Figure shows normal red blood cells flowing freely in a blood vessel. The inset image shows a cross-section of a normal red blood cell with normal hemoglobin.

Hemolytic anemia

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Form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells , either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular).

Form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells , either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular).

Figure shows normal red blood cells flowing freely in a blood vessel. The inset image shows a cross-section of a normal red blood cell with normal hemoglobin.

Acquired hemolytic anemia is also encountered in burns and as a result of certain infections (e.g. malaria).

Ronald Ross

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The page in Ross' notebook where he recorded the "pigmented bodies" in mosquitoes that he later identified as malaria parasites
Ross, Mrs Ross, Mahomed Bux, and two other assistants at Cunningham's laboratory of Presidency Hospital in Calcutta
Blue plaque, 18 Cavendish Square, London
Ronald Ross
Ross's grave at Putney Vale Cemetery, London in 2014
Ronald Ross Memorial, SSKM Hospital, Kolkata
Ronald Ross Plaque at PG Hospital
Sir Ronald Ross' name on LSHTM
Plaque at Liverpool University – on the Johnston Building, formerly the Johnston Laboratories, near Ashton Street, Liverpool
Ross's name remembered on the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Sir Ronald Ross (13 May 1857 – 16 September 1932) was a British medical doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on the transmission of malaria, becoming the first British Nobel laureate, and the first born outside Europe.

Man drinking stagnant water in Chad.

Water stagnation

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Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing.

Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing.

Man drinking stagnant water in Chad.
Mosquito larvae in stagnant water

Malaria and dengue are among the main dangers of stagnant water, which can become a breeding ground for the mosquitoes that transmit these diseases.

World map of infant mortality rates in 2017

Infant mortality

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Death of young children under the age of 1.

Death of young children under the age of 1.

World map of infant mortality rates in 2017
Infant mortality rates are higher in countries with higher economic inequality
Countries by 2019 GDP (nominal) per capita.
Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau
Infant mortality rate by region
Life expectancy at birth by region
1906 headline imploring parents to attend to the cleanliness of their infants, and to expose them to the "clean air" outdoors.
Data indicating the IMR disparity between infants Non-Hispanic black mothers and infants of white or Hispanic mothers in the United States from 2000 to 2010.
This 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld depicts the death of Bathsheba's first child with David, who lamented, "I shall go to him, but he will not return to me"
Percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2020. 
< 2,5%
< 5,0%
5,0–14,9%
15,0–24,9%
25,0–34,9%
> 35,0%
No data

Other leading causes of infant mortality include birth asphyxia, pneumonia, congenital malformations, term birth complications such as abnormal presentation of the fetus umbilical cord prolapse, or prolonged labor, neonatal infection, diarrhea, malaria, measles and malnutrition.

Blackwater fever

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Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria infection in which red blood cells burst in the bloodstream (hemolysis), releasing hemoglobin directly into the blood vessels and into the urine, frequently leading to kidney failure.

The human skull is used universally as a symbol of death

Death

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Irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain an organism.

Irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain an organism.

The human skull is used universally as a symbol of death
Statue of Death, personified as a human skeleton dressed in a shroud and clutching a scythe, from the Cathedral of Trier in Trier, Germany
Death tending to his flowers, in Kuoleman Puutarha, Hugo Simberg (1906)
World Health Organization estimated number of deaths per million persons in 2012
A flower, a skull and an hourglass stand for life, death and time in this 17th-century painting by Philippe de Champaigne
French – 16th-/17th-century ivory pendant, Monk and Death, recalling mortality and the certainty of death (Walters Art Museum)
Timeline of postmortem changes (stages of death).
Antoine Wiertz's painting of a man buried alive
American children smoking in 1910. Tobacco smoking caused an estimated 100 million deaths in the 20th century.
Le Suicidé by Édouard Manet depicts a man who has recently committed suicide via a firearm
An autopsy is portrayed in The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, by Rembrandt
Dead Camelthorn tree within Sossusvlei
Technicians prepare a body for cryopreservation in 1985.
Kyösti Kallio (in the middle), the fourth President of the Republic of Finland, had a fatal heart attack a few seconds after this photograph was taken by Hugo Sundström on December 19, 1940 at Helsinki railway station in Helsinki, Finland.
The regent duke Charles (later king Charles IX of Sweden) insulting the corpse of Klaus Fleming. Albert Edelfelt, 1878
Dead bodies can be mummified either naturally, as this one from Guanajuato, or by intention, as those in ancient Egypt
Gravestones in Kyoto, Japan
All is Vanity by Charles Allan Gilbert is an example of a memento mori, intended to represent how life and death are intertwined
Santa Muerte, the personification of death in Mexican tradition
Earthworms are soil-dwelling detritivores
A dodo, the bird that became a byword in the English language for the extinction of a species
Illustration depicting Hindu beliefs about reincarnation
A yahrzeit candle lit in memory of a loved one on the anniversary of the death
Study of Skeletons, c. 1510, by Leonardo da Vinci

Malaria causes about 400–900M cases of fever and 1–3M deaths annually.

Jaundice of the skin caused by pancreatic cancer

Jaundice

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Yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and sclera due to high bilirubin levels.

Yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and sclera due to high bilirubin levels.

Jaundice of the skin caused by pancreatic cancer
A 4-year-old boy with icteric sclera due to G6PD deficiency
Types of jaundice
Microscopy of a biopsy of a cholestatic liver showing bilirubin pigment (brown pigment), H&E stain
Biliary-tract dilation due to obstruction as seen on CT scan (frontal plane)
Biliary-tract dilation due to obstruction as seen on CT scan (axial plane)

Severe malaria (in endemic countries)

Peripheral blood film from a person with delta-beta thalassemia

Thalassemia

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Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders characterized by decreased hemoglobin production.

Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders characterized by decreased hemoglobin production.

Peripheral blood film from a person with delta-beta thalassemia
Left: Hand of a person with severe anemia. Right: Hand of a person without anemia.
Thalassemia has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.

Those who have minor degrees of thalassemia, similar to those with sickle-cell trait, have some protection against malaria, explaining why they are more common in regions of the world where malaria exists.