A report on Malaria

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Main symptoms of malaria
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
no data
<10
0–100
100–500
500–1000
1000–1500
1500–2000
2000–2500
2500–2750
2750–3000
3000–3250
3250–3500
≥3500

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

- Malaria
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

148 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Pregnancy-associated malaria

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Presentation of the common illness that is particularly life-threatening to both mother and developing fetus.

Presentation of the common illness that is particularly life-threatening to both mother and developing fetus.

During pregnancy, a woman faces a much higher risk of contracting malaria and of associated complications.

A transverse segment fMRI scan showing activated regions in orange.

Relapse

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Recurrence of a past condition.

Recurrence of a past condition.

A transverse segment fMRI scan showing activated regions in orange.

For example, multiple sclerosis and malaria often exhibit peaks of activity and sometimes very long periods of dormancy, followed by relapse or recrudescence.

Skin blotching and inflammation due to sepsis

Sepsis

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Life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

Life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

Skin blotching and inflammation due to sepsis
Blood culture bottles: orange cap for anaerobes, green cap for aerobes, and yellow cap for blood samples from children
Sepsis Steps. Training tool for teaching the progression of sepsis stages
Intravenous fluids being given
Personification of septicemia, carrying a spray can marked "Poison"
Phenotypic strategy switches of microbes capable of provoking sepsis

The most common causes for parasitic sepsis are Plasmodium (which leads to malaria), Schistosoma and Echinococcus.

Clockwise from top left: Blepharisma japonicum, a ciliate; Giardia muris, a parasitic flagellate; Centropyxis aculeata, a testate (shelled) amoeba; Peridinium willei, a dinoflagellate; Chaos carolinense, a naked amoebozoan; Desmarella moniliformis, a choanoflagellate

Protozoa

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Informal term for a group of single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, that feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

Informal term for a group of single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, that feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

Clockwise from top left: Blepharisma japonicum, a ciliate; Giardia muris, a parasitic flagellate; Centropyxis aculeata, a testate (shelled) amoeba; Peridinium willei, a dinoflagellate; Chaos carolinense, a naked amoebozoan; Desmarella moniliformis, a choanoflagellate
Class Protozoa, order Infusoria, family Monades by Georg August Goldfuss, c. 1844
John Hogg's illustration of the Four Kingdoms of Nature, showing "Primigenal" as a greenish haze at the base of the Animals and Plants, 1860
The ciliate Spirostomum ambiguum can attain 3 mm in length
Isotricha intestinalis, a ciliate present in the rumen of sheep.
Paramecium bursaria, is one example of a variety of freshwater ciliates that host endosymbiont chlorophyte algae from the genus Chlorella
Resting cyst of ciliated protozoan Dileptus viridis.
Life cycle of parasitic protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii
Trophozoites of the amoebic dysentery pathogen Entamoeba histolytica with ingested human red blood cells (dark circles)

Some are harmless or beneficial to their host organisms; others may be significant causes of diseases, such as babesia, malaria and toxoplasmosis.

An illustrative diagram explaining drug resistance.

Drug resistance

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Reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in treating a disease or condition.

Reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in treating a disease or condition.

An illustrative diagram explaining drug resistance.

Malaria in 2012 has become a resurgent threat in South East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, and drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum are posing massive problems for health authorities.

Generalized 3 Hz spike and wave discharges in EEG

Seizure

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Period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

Period of symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

Generalized 3 Hz spike and wave discharges in EEG
An individual who has bitten the tip of their tongue while having a seizure
An EEG can aid in locating the focus of the epileptic seizure.

Parasitic infections such as cerebral malaria. In Nigeria this is one of the most common causes of seizures among children under five years of age.

A poster advertising trials of the RTS,S vaccine

RTS,S

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Recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine.

Recombinant protein-based malaria vaccine.

A poster advertising trials of the RTS,S vaccine
RTS,S recombinant protein viruslike particle

In October 2021, the vaccine was endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for "broad use" in children, making it the first malaria vaccine candidate, and first vaccine to address parasitic infection, to receive this recommendation.

Giovanni Battista Grassi

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Grassi Giovanni Battista

Giovanni Battista Grassi (27 March 1854 – 4 May 1925) was an Italian physician and zoologist, best known for his pioneering works on parasitology, especially on malariology.

Sickle cells in human blood: both normal red blood cells and sickle-shaped cells are present

Sickle cell trait

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Homozygous).

Homozygous).

Sickle cells in human blood: both normal red blood cells and sickle-shaped cells are present

Sickling and sickle cell disease also confer some resistance to malaria parasitization of red blood cells, so that individuals with sickle-cell trait (heterozygotes) have a selective advantage in environments where malaria is present.

Tafenoquine

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Tafenoquine, sold under the brand name Krintafel among others, is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria.