A report on Malaria

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Main symptoms of malaria
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
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<10
0–100
100–500
500–1000
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2500–2750
2750–3000
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3250–3500
≥3500

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

- Malaria
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

148 related topics with Alpha

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Deltamethrin

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Pyrethroid ester insecticide.

Pyrethroid ester insecticide.

Deltamethrin plays a key role in controlling malaria vectors, and is used in the manufacture of long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets; however, resistance of mosquitos and bed bugs to deltamethrin has seen a widespread increase.

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

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Laveran's drawing in his 1880 notebook showing different stages of Plasmodium falciparum from fresh blood.
Grave at Cimetière du Montparnasse
Commemorative plaque at the Château à Strasbourg
Laveran's name on the LSHTM Frieze

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (18 June 1845 – 18 May 1922) was a French physician who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1907 for his discoveries of parasitic protozoans as causative agents of infectious diseases such as malaria and trypanosomiasis.

Second World War poster "Keep out malaria mosquitoes repair your torn screens". U.S. Public Health Service, 1941–45

History of malaria

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The history of malaria stretches from its prehistoric origin as a zoonotic disease in the primates of Africa through to the 21st century.

The history of malaria stretches from its prehistoric origin as a zoonotic disease in the primates of Africa through to the 21st century.

Second World War poster "Keep out malaria mosquitoes repair your torn screens". U.S. Public Health Service, 1941–45
The mosquito and the fly in this Baltic amber necklace are between 40 and 60 million years old.
Cinchona tree by Theodor Zwinger, 1696
Map of the United States showing the distribution of deaths from malaria. Census of 1880.
In 1880, Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran observed pigmented parasites and the exflagellation of male gametocytes.
The notebook in which Ronald Ross first described pigmented malaria parasites in stomach tissues of an Anopheles mosquito, 20 and 21 August 1897
Protocol for the synthesis of Resochin, Hans Andersag 1934
Artemisia annua being grown as a field crop in West Virginia for the production of artemisinin, 2005
Pyrethrum field (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) Lari Hills, Nairobi, Kenya, in 2010
Original preparation of quinine acetate by Pelletier. circa 1820.

A widespread and potentially lethal human infectious disease, at its peak malaria infested every continent except Antarctica.

The human spleen is located in the upper left abdomen, behind the stomach

Spleen

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Organ found in all vertebrates.

Organ found in all vertebrates.

The human spleen is located in the upper left abdomen, behind the stomach
A 3D medical animation still of spleen structure & exact location
Visceral surface of the spleen
Micrograph of splenic tissue showing the red pulp (red), white pulp (blue) and a thickened inflamed capusule (mostly pink – top of image). H&E stain.
The spleen contains two different tissues, white pulp (A) and red pulp (B). The white pulp functions in producing and growing immune and blood cells. The red pulp functions in filtering blood of antigens, microorganisms, and defective or worn-out red blood cells.
Thalassemia enlarged spleen taken after splenectomy
Laparoscopic view of a horse's spleen (the purple and grey mottled organ)
Spleen seen on abdominal ultrasonography
Maximum length of spleen on abdominal ultrasonography
Back of lumbar region, showing surface markings for kidneys, ureters, and spleen
Side of thorax, showing surface markings for bones, lungs (purple), pleura (blue), and spleen (green)
Transverse section of the spleen, showing the trabecular tissue and the splenic vein and its tributaries
Spleen
Laparoscopic view of human spleen

It may be caused by sickle cell anemia, sarcoidosis, malaria, bacterial endocarditis, leukemia, polycythemia vera, pernicious anemia, Gaucher's disease, leishmaniasis, Hodgkin's disease, Banti's disease, hereditary spherocytosis, cysts, glandular fever (mononucleosis or 'Mono' caused by the Epstein–Barr virus, infection from cytomegalovirus), and tumours.

Seeds

Dihydroartemisinin

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Seeds

Dihydroartemisinin (also known as dihydroqinghaosu, artenimol or DHA) is a drug used to treat malaria.

Graph depicting premunition in malaria. Adapted from

Premunition

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Host response that protects against high numbers of parasite and illness without eliminating the infection.

Host response that protects against high numbers of parasite and illness without eliminating the infection.

Graph depicting premunition in malaria. Adapted from

For malaria, premunition is maintained by repeated antigen exposure from infective bites.

Giemsa stained Trypanosoma parasites (Chagas disease pathogen)

Giemsa stain

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Giemsa stained Trypanosoma parasites (Chagas disease pathogen)
Whirling disease section stained with Giemsa stain
"Owl's-eye" viral inclusions, associated with Cytomegalovirus infection.

Giemsa stain, named after German chemist and bacteriologist Gustav Giemsa, is a nucleic acid stain used in cytogenetics and for the histopathological diagnosis of malaria and other parasites.

Computerized tomography of affected person with hepatomegaly

Hepatomegaly

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Condition of having an enlarged liver.

Condition of having an enlarged liver.

Computerized tomography of affected person with hepatomegaly
Leptospirosis
Abdominal ultrasonography of the liver, as a sagittal plane through the midclavicular line, with some standard measurements.
Right lobe of the liver at the midclavicular line at ages 0 to 7.
Prednisone

Malaria

Scheme showing analogies in the process of maturation of the ovum and the development of the spermatids.

Gametocyte

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Eukaryotic germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes or by meiosis into gametids during gametogenesis.

Eukaryotic germ cell that divides by mitosis into other gametocytes or by meiosis into gametids during gametogenesis.

Scheme showing analogies in the process of maturation of the ovum and the development of the spermatids.
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium vivax

The term gametocyte is also used, for example, when talking about gametocytes of species like Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax, which transmit malaria.

A TEM micrograph of yellow fever virus (234,000× magnification)

Yellow fever

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Viral disease of typically short duration.

Viral disease of typically short duration.

A TEM micrograph of yellow fever virus (234,000× magnification)
Aedes aegypti feeding
Adults of the yellow fever mosquito A. aegypti: The male is on the left, females are on the right. Only the female mosquito bites humans to transmit the disease.
The cover of a certificate that confirms the holder has been vaccinated against yellow fever
Information campaign for prevention of dengue and yellow fever in Paraguay
Areas with risk of yellow fever in Africa (2017)
Areas with risk of yellow fever in South America (2018)
Sugar curing house, 1762: Sugar pots and jars on sugar plantations served as breeding place for larvae of A. aegypti, the vector of yellow fever.
Headstones of people who died in the yellow fever epidemic of 1878 can be found in New Orleans' cemeteries
A page from Commodore James Biddle's list of the 76 dead (74 of yellow fever) aboard the USS Macedonian, dated 3 August 1822
Yellow fever in Buenos Aires, 1871
Carlos Finlay
Walter Reed
Max Theiler
Vaccination against yellow fever 10 days before entering this country/territory is required for travellers coming from... 
All countries
Risk countries (including airport transfers)
Risk countries (excluding airport transfers)
No requirement (risk country)
No requirement (non-risk country)

In a differential diagnosis, infections with yellow fever must be distinguished from other feverish illnesses such as malaria.