A report on Malaria

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Main symptoms of malaria
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
no data
<10
0–100
100–500
500–1000
1000–1500
1500–2000
2000–2500
2500–2750
2750–3000
3000–3250
3250–3500
≥3500

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

- Malaria
Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

148 related topics with Alpha

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Indoor residual spraying in Kenya in 2017

Indoor residual spraying

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Indoor residual spraying in Kenya in 2017
Walls on IRS-treated bathroom on the shores of Lake Victoria. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.

Indoor residual spraying or IRS is the process of spraying the inside of dwellings with an insecticide to kill mosquitoes that spread malaria.

Pesticide application can artificially select for resistant pests. In this diagram, the first generation happens to have an insect with a heightened resistance to a pesticide (red). After pesticide application, its descendants represent a larger proportion of the population, because sensitive pests (white) have been selectively killed. After repeated applications, resistant pests may comprise the majority of the population.

Pesticide resistance

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Previously effective at controlling the pest.

Previously effective at controlling the pest.

Pesticide application can artificially select for resistant pests. In this diagram, the first generation happens to have an insect with a heightened resistance to a pesticide (red). After pesticide application, its descendants represent a larger proportion of the population, because sensitive pests (white) have been selectively killed. After repeated applications, resistant pests may comprise the majority of the population.

DDT is no longer effective in preventing malaria in some places. Resistance developed slowly in the 1960s due to agricultural use. This pattern was especially noted and synthesized by Mouchet 1988.

Piperaquine

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Piperaquine is an antiparasitic drug used in combination with dihydroartemisinin to treat malaria.

Gorgas during World War I

William C. Gorgas

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United States Army physician and 22nd Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1914–1918).

United States Army physician and 22nd Surgeon General of the U.S. Army (1914–1918).

Gorgas during World War I
c. 1920
William C. Gorgas' name as it is featured on the LSHTM Frieze
Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas, honored on Canal Zone Postage
Photograph of Gorgas published in the 1920 Scientific Monthly obituary

He is best known for his work in Florida, Havana and at the Panama Canal in abating the transmission of yellow fever and malaria by controlling the mosquitoes that carry these diseases.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

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Most common enzyme deficiency worldwide, is an inborn error of metabolism that predisposes to red blood cell breakdown.

Most common enzyme deficiency worldwide, is an inborn error of metabolism that predisposes to red blood cell breakdown.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
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A side effect of this disease is that it confers protection against malaria, in particular the form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly form of malaria.

Cinchona

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Genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs.

Genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs.

Cortex peruvianus study by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 1706
Cinchona officinalis, the harvested bark
Peru offers a branch of cinchona to science (from a 17th-century engraving).
A 19th-century illustration of Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona pubescens fruit
General structure of Cinchona alkaloids

Cinchona has been historically sought after for its medicinal value, as the bark of several species yields quinine and other alkaloids that were the only effective treatments against malaria during the height of European colonialism, which made them of great economic and political importance.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

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National public health agency of the United States.

National public health agency of the United States.

The Communicable Disease Center moved to its current headquarters in 1960. Building 1 is pictured in 1963.
Arlen Specter Headquarters and Emergency Operations Center
CDC's Roybal campus in Atlanta, Georgia
Tom Harkin Global Communications Center
CDC Building 17 in Atlanta, Georgia, as seen from Emory University
David Sencer points to a depiction of Triatomine sp., which transmits Chagas disease
Donald Henderson as part of the CDC's smallpox eradication team in 1966
CDC and MSF staff preparing to enter an Ebola treatment unit in Liberia, August 2014

Preceding its founding, organizations with global influence in malaria control were the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and the Rockefeller Foundation.

Malarone tablets, as issued in the UK.

Atovaquone/proguanil

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Malarone tablets, as issued in the UK.

Atovaquone/proguanil, sold under the brand name Malarone among others, is a fixed-dose combination medication used to treat and prevent malaria, including chloroquine-resistant malaria.

Recrudescence

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Revival of material or behavior that had previously been stabilized, settled, or diminished.

Revival of material or behavior that had previously been stabilized, settled, or diminished.

In malaria, recurrence can take place due to recrudescence; or relapse; or re-infection (via mosquito transmission).

Structure of hemoglobin

Hemoglobinuria

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Condition in which the oxygen transport protein hemoglobin is found in abnormally high concentrations in the urine.

Condition in which the oxygen transport protein hemoglobin is found in abnormally high concentrations in the urine.

Structure of hemoglobin

Malaria