Malay language

MalayBahasa MelayuMalay-languageStandard MalayMalaysianMalayanBahasa MalaysiamsCourt Malaylanguage
Malay (Bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو) is an Austronesian language spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as well as parts of Thailand.wikipedia
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Austronesian languages

AustronesianAustronesian languageAustronesian language family
Malay (Bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو) is an Austronesian language spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as well as parts of Thailand.
Major Austronesian languages include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog).

Languages of Singapore

four official languagesofficial languagesofficial languages of Singapore
Malay (Bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو) is an Austronesian language spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as well as parts of Thailand.
According to Constitution of Singapore, the national language of Singapore is Malay, which plays a symbolic role, as Malays are constitutionally recognized as the indigenous peoples of Singapore, and it is the government's duty to protect their language and heritage.

Malay Peninsula

MalayaThai-Malay PeninsulaMalayan Peninsula
A language of the Malays, it is spoken by 290 million people across the Strait of Malacca, including the coasts of the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia and the eastern coast of Sumatra in Indonesia and has been established as a native language of part of western coastal Sarawak and West Kalimantan in Borneo.
The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.

Malaysia

Federation of MalaysiaMalaysianMalaya
Malay (Bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو) is an Austronesian language spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as well as parts of Thailand.
The country's official language is Malaysian, a standard form of the Malay language.

Brunei

Brunei DarussalamBruneianNegara Brunei Darussalam
Malay (Bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو) is an Austronesian language spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as well as parts of Thailand.
In the country's full name, Negara Brunei Darussalam, darussalam means "abode of peace", while negara means "country" in Malay.

Malaysian language

MalaysianBahasa MalaysiaMalay
In Malaysia, it is designated as either Bahasa Malaysia ("Malaysian language") or Bahasa Melayu ("Malay language").
The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia; Jawi: بهاس مليسيا‎) or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia (as opposed to the lect used in Indonesia, which is referred to as the Indonesian language).

Austronesian peoples

AustronesianAustronesiansAustronesian people
Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language, began to break up by at least 2000 BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan.
The linguistic connections between Madagascar, Polynesia and Southeast Asia were recognized early in the colonial era by European authors, particularly the remarkable similarities between Malagasy, Malay, and Polynesian numerals.

South Sumatra

South SumateraSouthSouth Sumatra Province
The oldest surviving specimen of Old Malay, the Kedukan Bukit inscription, dating from the end of the 7th century AD, was found on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi, South Sumatra.
Most of them spoke the Palembang Malay, which is mutually unintelligible to both Indonesian and Standard Malay.

Riau

Riau ProvinceEmblem of RiauRiau Indonesian
When Johor was divided between British Malaya (Johor) and the Dutch East Indies (Riau), its language was accorded official status in both territories.
The local Riau dialect of Malay is considered as the lingua franca in the province, but Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay is used as the official language and also as the second language of many people.

Malays (ethnic group)

MalayMalaysMalay people
A language of the Malays, it is spoken by 290 million people across the Strait of Malacca, including the coasts of the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia and the eastern coast of Sumatra in Indonesia and has been established as a native language of part of western coastal Sarawak and West Kalimantan in Borneo.
Common definitive markers of a Malayness – the religion of Islam, the Malay language and traditions – are thought to have been promulgated during this era, resulting in the ethnogenesis of the Malay as a major ethnoreligious group in the region.

Javanese language

JavaneseOld JavaneseJavanese word
Some Malay dialects, however, show only limited mutual intelligibility with the standard language; for example, Kelantanese or Sarawakian pronunciation is difficult for many fellow Malaysians to understand, while Indonesian contains many words unfamiliar to speakers of Malaysian, some because of Javanese, Sundanese or other local language influence, and some because of the independent development of Indonesian slang and colloquial parlance.
Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians.

Languages of Indonesia

Indonesian languageslanguagesIndonesian
Some Malay dialects, however, show only limited mutual intelligibility with the standard language; for example, Kelantanese or Sarawakian pronunciation is difficult for many fellow Malaysians to understand, while Indonesian contains many words unfamiliar to speakers of Malaysian, some because of Javanese, Sundanese or other local language influence, and some because of the independent development of Indonesian slang and colloquial parlance.
The official language is Indonesian (locally known as bahasa Indonesia), a standardised form of Malay, which serves as the lingua franca of the archipelago.

Kedukan Bukit inscription

Kedukan BukitKedukan Bukti
The oldest surviving specimen of Old Malay, the Kedukan Bukit inscription, dating from the end of the 7th century AD, was found on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi, South Sumatra.
It is the oldest surviving specimen of the Malay language, in a form known as Old Malay.

Dutch East Indies

Netherlands East IndiesDutch IndiesDutch
When Johor was divided between British Malaya (Johor) and the Dutch East Indies (Riau), its language was accorded official status in both territories.
Ordinary Indonesians were educated in Malay in Roman alphabet with "link" schools preparing bright Indonesian students for entry into the Dutch-language schools.

Sumatra

SumateraSumatra IslandSumatran
A language of the Malays, it is spoken by 290 million people across the Strait of Malacca, including the coasts of the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia and the eastern coast of Sumatra in Indonesia and has been established as a native language of part of western coastal Sarawak and West Kalimantan in Borneo.
Within Malayo-Polynesian, they are divided into several sub-branches: Chamic (which are represented by Acehnese in which its closest relatives are languages spoken by Ethnic Chams in Cambodia and Vietnam), Malayic (Malay, Minangkabau and other closely related languages), Northwest Sumatra–Barrier Islands (Batak languages, Gayo and others), Lampungic (includes Proper Lampung and Komering) and Bornean (represented by Rejang in which its closest linguistic relatives are Bukar Sadong and Land Dayak spoken in West Kalimantan and Sarawak (Malaysia)).

Srivijaya

Srivijaya EmpireSriwijayaSri Vijaya
This 14th-century pre-Islamic legal text produced in the Adityawarman era (1345–1377) of Dharmasraya, a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that arose after the end of Srivijayan rule in Sumatra.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya or Sriwijaya in Malay), was a dominant thalassocratic Indonesian empire based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

Penang

Pulau PinangPenang, MalaysiaState of Penang
The language spoken by the Peranakan (Straits Chinese, a hybrid of Chinese settlers from the Ming Dynasty and local Malays) is a unique patois of Malay and the Hokkien Chinese, which is mostly spoken in the former Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca in Malaysia, and the Indonesian Archipelago.
The name, Penang, comes from the modern Malay name Pulau Pinang, which means The Island of the Areca Nut Palm (Areca catechu).

Peranakan

Straits ChinesePeranakan ChineseNyonya
The language spoken by the Peranakan (Straits Chinese, a hybrid of Chinese settlers from the Ming Dynasty and local Malays) is a unique patois of Malay and the Hokkien Chinese, which is mostly spoken in the former Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca in Malaysia, and the Indonesian Archipelago.
In both Malay and Indonesian, the word Peranakan is derived from anak "child" and means "descendant", with no connotation of the ethnicity of descent unless followed by a subsequent qualifying noun, such as for example Peranakan Tionghoa/Cina (Chinese descendants), Jawi Peranakan (Arab descendants), or Peranakan Belanda (Dutch descendants).

Sundanese language

SundaneseBasa SundaSunda
Some Malay dialects, however, show only limited mutual intelligibility with the standard language; for example, Kelantanese or Sarawakian pronunciation is difficult for many fellow Malaysians to understand, while Indonesian contains many words unfamiliar to speakers of Malaysian, some because of Javanese, Sundanese or other local language influence, and some because of the independent development of Indonesian slang and colloquial parlance.
Sundanese appears to be most closely related to Madurese and Malay, and more distantly related to Javanese.

Indonesian slang

colloquial IndonesianGaulgua
Some Malay dialects, however, show only limited mutual intelligibility with the standard language; for example, Kelantanese or Sarawakian pronunciation is difficult for many fellow Malaysians to understand, while Indonesian contains many words unfamiliar to speakers of Malaysian, some because of Javanese, Sundanese or other local language influence, and some because of the independent development of Indonesian slang and colloquial parlance.
According to the Ethnologue, Indonesian is modelled after Riau Malay, a form of Old Malay originally spoken in Northeast Sumatra.

Indonesia

Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
Malay (Bahasa Melayu, بهاس ملايو) is an Austronesian language spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, as well as parts of Thailand.
The country's official language is Indonesian, a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect, which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago.

Malayic languages

MalayicMalayan languagesMalayan
Standard Malay, also called Court Malay, was the literary standard of the pre-colonial Malacca and Johor Sultanates, and so the language is sometimes called Malacca, Johor or Riau Malay (or various combinations of those names) to distinguish it from the various other Malayan languages.
The most prominent member is Standard Malay, which is the national language of Brunei, Singapore and Malaysia, and which also serves as basis for Indonesian, the national language of Indonesia.

Brunei Malay

BruneianKedayanBrunei
The vernacular of Brunei—Brunei Malay—for example, is not readily intelligible with the standard language, and the same is true with some lects on the Malay Peninsula such as Kedah Malay.
Brunei Malay (Malay: Bahasa Melayu Brunei) is the most widely spoken language in Brunei and a lingua franca in some parts of East Malaysia, such as Labuan, Limbang, Lawas, Sipitang and Papar.

Arabic script

ArabicPerso-Arabic scriptPerso-Arabic
Malay is now written using the Latin script (Rumi), although an Arabic script called Arab Melayu or Jawi also exists.
The Arabic script has been adapted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian, Malay and Urdu, which are not Semitic.

Malagasy language

MalagasyBetsimisarakamlg
Malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, is also a member of this language family.