Malaysia

"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca
Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of Penang, the first British colony in what was to become Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat
The Perdana Putra houses the office of the Prime Minister.
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018
Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right:, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.
Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Mount Kinabalu, the highest summit in the country
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tiger.
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1870 to 2018
A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019
The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.
Population pyramid 2016
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census
A traditional house being built in Sabah
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year
Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Ministry of Education, Putrajaya

Country in Southeast Asia.

- Malaysia

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Kuala Lumpur

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Part of a panoramic view of Kuala Lumpur c. 1884. To the left is the Padang. The buildings were constructed of wood and atap before regulations enacted by Swettenham in 1884 required buildings to use bricks and tiles. The appearance of Kuala Lumpur transformed rapidly in the following years due to the building regulations.
The Government Offices of the Federated Malay States (Now the Sultan Abdul Samad Building) facing the Padang, c. 1900
The construction of railway spurred the growth of the city. The first headquarters of the Federated Malay States Railways (now the National Textile Museum) near the F.M.S. Government Offices in the distance, c. 1910.
An arcade of shophouses with a road sweeper at work in the street of Kuala Lumpur, c. 1915–1925.
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The Majestic Theatre on Pudu Road was an early pioneer in Kuala Lumpur's cinema scene. It was converted into an amusement park in the 1990s and demolished in 2009.
The Kuala Lumpur City Centre (KLCC) in 2020.
A satellite view of Klang Valley or Greater Kuala Lumpur
The Red Arrows over the city in 2016
Kuala Lumpur City Hall
Districts (divisions) of Kuala Lumpur
The Malaysia Parliament House (Bangunan Parlimen Malaysia), located at the end of Jalan Parlimen.
A pedestrian mall by the Central Market.
The Merdeka 118 is the tallest building in Southeast Asia while also being the second tallest building in the world, after Burj Khalifa.
The Exchange 106 is the third tallest building in Malaysia, located within TRX.
The Medan Pasar with its clock tower right at the centre of the square.
Sultan Abdul Samad Building, a historic building designed in the Moorish style and formerly housed various government offices.
The National Museum of Malaysia, located along Jalan Damansara.
Clockwise from top left: Masjid Negara, Thean Hou Temple, Sri Mahamariamman Temple, St. John's Cathedral
The Kuala Lumpur Railway Station (right) contrasts with Keretapi Tanah Melayu (left) Administration Building, a darker, similarly Mughal-styled building. Both were designed by A. B. Hubback
Jamek Mosque (Masjid Jamek) is one of the oldest mosques still standing in Kuala Lumpur, built in 1909.
KLCC Park is a 50-acre urban park located in the city centre.
University of Malaya City View.
Frieze depicting Malaysian history at the National Museum.
The Saloma Link seen at dusk.
Bukit Jalil National Stadium is an all-seater multi-purpose stadium that was built in January 1995.
The Kuala Lumpur Tower is an important broadcast centre in the country.
TM Tower is the headquarters of Malaysia's principal telecommunication service provider, Telekom Malaysia.
Entrance A of the Tun Razak Exchange MRT station. The station is designed to look more business-friendly, located in and named after a new financial district under development, TRX.
Double-deck buses crossing at Jalan Ampang
Typical public cab in Kuala Lumpur
Isfahan street (formerly Jalan Selat, Straits Road) in Kuala Lumpur (above) and Kuala Lumpur avenue in Isfahan (below)
Changkat Bukit Bintang, an upmarket gastronomy area and red light district in Kuala Lumpur at night.
Bukit Bintang, Kuala Lumpur's retail cluster.
Suria KLCC, located between the Petronas Twin Towers.
Pavilion KL, one of the city's iconic shopping centre.
Pasar Seni (Central Market), known for its art and craft souvenirs based on Malaysian culture.
The Carigali Tower, Petronas Twin Towers, Maxis Tower and Four Seasons Place KL from left.

Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Chinese: 吉隆坡联邦直辖区, Tamil: கோலாலம்பூர் கூட்டரசு பிரதேசம்) and colloquially referred to as KL, is a federal territory and the capital city of Malaysia.

Brunei

Country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

Brunei territorial losses from 1400 to 1890
Boundaries of Brunei (green) since 1890
British adventurer James Brooke negotiating with the Sultan of Brunei, which led to the signing of the Treaty of Labuan, 1846
Ahmad Tajuddin, the 27th Sultan of Brunei, with members of his court in April 1941, eight months before the Japanese invaded Brunei
Nagato, Tone, Yamato and Musashi in Brunei Bay in October 1944
Major-General Wootten of the Australian 9th Division with Lieutenant-General Masao Baba (signing) of the Japanese 37th Division at the surrender ceremony at Labuan on 10 September 1945
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III
British soldiers in the British protectorate of Brunei on guard in the Seria oilfield, January 1963
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (right) in 2004
A topographic and geographic limits map of Brunei
Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei.
Brunei's Sultan and Foreign Minister Hassanal Bolkiah meets with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2015
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah with Indonesian President Joko Widodo, 6 October 2017
Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah and Vladimir Putin during APEC 2000
Headscarves called tudong are compulsory for Brunei's Muslim schoolgirls
Brunei International Airport Mosque
A proportional representation of Brunei exports, 2019
BIMP-EAGA meeting in the office of Brunei Prime Minister on 25 April 2013. From left: Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Malaysian Representative and Filipino President Benigno Aquino III. Brunei is part of the BIMP-EAGA, a subregional economic co-operation initiative in Southeast Asia.
Royal Brunei Boeing 787 Dreamliner at London Heathrow Airport.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque at night.
Royal Regalia Museum
Nagato, Tone, Yamato and Musashi in Brunei Bay in October 1944

Brunei is the only sovereign state entirely on Borneo; the remainder of the island is divided between Malaysia and Indonesia.

Putrajaya

Putrajaya precincts
Perdana Putra, the Prime Minister's office
Istana Melawati
Putra Mosque
Seri Wawasan Bridge
Aerial Photograph - Oct 2013
The Prime Minister's office at Perdana Putra
Perbadanan government complex
The Ministry of Finance complex
Istana Kehakiman
Putrajaya Walk
PM Office and Putra Mosque at night
Interior view of the Seri Wawasan Bridge
Putra Mosque with the Prime Minister's office in the background
Seri Saujana Bridge at night
Pullman Putrajaya Lakeside Hotel
Modern architecture includes streetlamps
Putrajaya International Convention Centre (PICC)
Ministry of Health Building
Highrises in Precinct 4
Ministry of Agriculture and Agro Based Industry Building

Putrajaya, officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya (Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya), is a planned capital city which functions as the administrative capital and the judicial capital of Malaysia.

Government of Malaysia

Based in the Federal Territory of Putrajaya with the exception of the legislative branch, which is located in Kuala Lumpur.

The Istana Negara, the residence and office of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong.
Perdana Putra houses the office complex of the Prime Minister of Malaysia.

Malaysia is a federation of 11 states of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak and 3 Federal Territories operating within a constitutional monarchy under the Westminster system and is categorised as a representative democracy.

Vietnam

Country in Southeast Asia.

A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c. 800 BC
Vietnam's territories around 1838
The Grand Palais built for the 1902–1903 world's fair, when Hanoi was French Indochina's capital
Partition of French Indochina after the 1954 Geneva Conference
Three US Fairchild UC-123B aircraft spraying Agent Orange during the Operation Ranch Hand as part of a herbicidal warfare operation depriving the food and vegetation cover of the Việt Cộng, c. 1962–1971
Nature attractions in Vietnam, clockwise from top: Hạ Long Bay, Yến River and Bản-Giốc Waterfalls
Hoàng Liên Sơn mountain range, the range that includes Fansipan which is the highest summit on the Indochinese Peninsula.
Köppen climate classification map of Vietnam.
Nha Trang, a popular beach destination has a tropical savanna climate.
Native species in Vietnam, clockwise from top-right: crested argus, a peafowl, red-shanked douc, Indochinese leopard, saola.
Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities
The National Assembly of Vietnam building in Hanoi
Examples of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: T-54B tank, Sukhoi Su-27UBK fighter aircraft, Vietnam Coast Guard Hamilton-class cutter, and Vietnam People's Army chemical corps with Type 56.
A Communist Party propaganda poster in Hanoi
Historical GDP per capita development of Vietnam
Tree map showing Vietnam's exports
Vietnam's tallest skyscraper, the Landmark 81 located in Bình Thạnh, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).
Terraced rice fields in Sa Pa
A Vietnamese-made TOPIO 3.0 humanoid ping-pong-playing robot displayed during the 2009 International Robot Exhibition (IREX) in Tokyo.
Vietnamese science students working on an experiment in their university lab.
Hội An, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist destination.
HCMC–LT–DG section of the North–South Expressway.
Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the busiest airport in the country.
The port of Hai Phong is one of the largest and busiest container ports in Vietnam.
Sơn La Dam in northern Vietnam, the largest hydroelectric dam in Southeast Asia.
In rural areas of Vietnam, piped water systems are operated by a wide variety of institutions including a national organisation, people committees (local government), community groups, co-operatives and private companies.
Development of life expectancy in Vietnam since 1950
Vietnam population pyramid in 2019
District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Urbanisation in west Hanoi
Vietnamese calligraphy in Latin alphabet.
Vietnamese traditional white school uniform for girls in the country, the áo dài with the addition of nón lá, a conical hat.
Vietnamese dragon on Emperor Khải Định's c. 1917 scroll in British Library collection.
Ca trù trio performance in northern Vietnam
Some of the notable Vietnamese cuisine, clockwise from top-right: phở noodle, chè thái fruit dessert, chả giò spring roll and bánh mì sandwich.
Vietnam Television (VTV), the main state television station
Special Tết decoration in the country seen during the holiday
Mỹ Đình National Stadium in Hanoi.

Vietnam borders China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea.

Malaysia–Thailand border

The border wall between Thailand and Malaysia near Padang Besar checkpoint.
Map of the Malaysia-Thailand border
A Malaysia-Thailand boundary stone at the Bukit Kayu Hitam-Danok border crossing.
Malaysian boundary wall near Padang Besar, Malaysia
The Sadao checkpoint (Ban Dan Nok), just across the Malaysia-Thailand border marked by the border stone in front. Photo taken from the Malaysian (Kedah) side of the border.

The Malaysia–Thailand border divides the countries of Malaysia and Thailand and consists of a land boundary running for 595 km (370 mi) across the Malay Peninsula and maritime boundaries in the Straits of Malacca and the Gulf of Thailand/South China Sea.

Philippines

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

It shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest.

Indonesia

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia, as well as maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands).

States and federal territories of Malaysia

Malaysia and its states' flags at Putra Square, Putrajaya
The building hosting the Sarawak State Legislative Assembly

The states and federal territories of Malaysia are the principal administrative divisions of Malaysia.

Federation of Malaya

Federation of what previously had been British Malaya comprising eleven states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca) that existed from 1 February 1948 until 16 September 1963.

Dato' Onn bin Jaafar Mentri Besar of Johor, and President of the United Malays National Organisation, unpacking the State and Federation of Malaya Agreements with Dr. W. Linehan, C.M.G. Adviser on Constitutional Affairs, for the signatures of His Highness the Sultan of Johor, 1948
Evolution of Malaysia

The Federation became independent on 31 August 1957, and in 1963, Malaysia was formed when the federation united with the Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak Crown Colonies.