A report on Malaysia and Sanskrit

Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. The red horizontal and vertical lines mark low and high pitch changes for chanting.
A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of Pāṇini's grammar treatise from Kashmir
"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
An early use of the word for "Sanskrit" in Late Brahmi script (also called Gupta script): Gupta ashoka sam.jpgGupta ashoka skrr.jpgGupta ashoka t.svg Saṃ-skṛ-ta 
Mandsaur stone inscription of Yashodharman-Vishnuvardhana, 532 CE.
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.
Sanskrit's link to the Prakrit languages and other Indo-European languages
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca
The Spitzer Manuscript is dated to about the 2nd century CE (above: folio 383 fragment). Discovered in the Kizil Caves, near the northern branch of the Central Asian Silk Route in northwest China, it is the oldest Sanskrit philosophical manuscript known so far.
Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of Penang, the first British colony in what was to become Malaysia
A 5th-century Sanskrit inscription discovered in Java, Indonesia—one of the earliest in southeast Asia after the Mulavarman inscription discovered in Kutai, eastern Borneo. The Ciaruteun inscription combines two writing scripts and compares the king to the Hindu god Vishnu. It provides a terminus ad quem to the presence of Hinduism in the Indonesian islands. The oldest southeast Asian Sanskrit inscription—called the Vo Canh inscription—so far discovered is near Nha Trang, Vietnam, and it is dated to the late 2nd century to early 3rd century CE.
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat
Sanskrit language's historical presence has been attested in many countries. The evidence includes manuscript pages and inscriptions discovered in South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central Asia. These have been dated between 300 and 1800 CE.
The Perdana Putra houses the office of the Prime Minister.
One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit manuscript pages in Gupta script (c. 828 CE), discovered in Nepal
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018
One of the oldest Hindu Sanskrit inscriptions, the broken pieces of this early-1st-century BCE Hathibada Brahmi Inscription were discovered in Rajasthan. It is a dedication to deities Vāsudeva-Samkarshana (Krishna-Balarama) and mentions a stone temple.
Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right:, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.
in the form of a terracotta plaque
Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Sanskrit in modern Indian and other Brahmi scripts: May Śiva bless those who take delight in the language of the gods. (Kālidāsa)
Mount Kinabalu, the highest summit in the country
One of the earliest known Sanskrit inscriptions in Tamil Grantha script at a rock-cut Hindu Trimurti temple (Mandakapattu, c. 615 CE)
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tiger.
The ancient Yūpa inscription (one of the earliest and oldest Sanskrit texts written in ancient Indonesia) dating back to the 4th century CE written by Brahmins under the rule of King Mulavarman of the Kutai Martadipura Kingdom located in eastern Borneo
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
Sanskrit festival at Pramati Hillview Academy, Mysore, India
Development of real GDP per capita, 1870 to 2018
A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019
The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.
Population pyramid 2016
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census
A traditional house being built in Sabah
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year
Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Ministry of Education, Putrajaya
Topographic map of Malaysia; Mount Kinabalu is the highest summit in the country.
Köppen climate classification of Malaysia. The country is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Kuala Lumpur, the financial centre of Malaysia
The distribution of language families of Malaysia shown by colours:
(click image to enlarge) 
Malayic
Bornean
Aslian
Land Dayak
Sama–Bajaw
Philippine
Chinese
Areas with multiple languages

It may derive from the Sanskrit "Himalaya", referring to areas high in the mountains, or "Malaiyur-pura", meaning mountain town.

- Malaysia

Beyond ancient India, significant collections of Sanskrit manuscripts and inscriptions have been found in China (particularly the Tibetan monasteries), Myanmar, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia.

- Sanskrit

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Indonesia

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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia, as well as maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands).

The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century.

India

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India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

By, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, (a)

By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Brunei, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

Thailand

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Country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513120 km2, with a population of almost 70 million.

Country in Southeast Asia, located at the centre of Mainland Southeast Asia, spanning 513120 km2, with a population of almost 70 million.

SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, King Mongkut's signature
Map showing geographic distribution of Tai-Kadai linguistic family. Arrows represent general pattern of the migration of Tai-speaking tribes along the rivers and over the lower passes.
Taksin the Great enthroned himself as a Thai king, 1767.
Coronation of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.
United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship, Red Shirts, protest in 2010
Thailand map of Köppen climate classification.
The population of Asian elephants in Thailand's wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000–3,000.
Sappaya-Sapasathan, the current Parliament House of Thailand
King Bhumibol Adulyadej in a meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama, 18 November 2012
The HTMS Chakri Naruebet, an aircraft carrier of the Royal Thai Navy
A Royal Thai Air Force JAS 39 Gripen
A proportional representation of Thailand exports, 2019
Sathorn in Bangkok is a skyscraper-studded business district that is home to major hotels and embassies.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1890 to 2018
A proportional representation of Thailand's exports
Thailand has long been one of the largest rice exporters in the world. Forty-nine percent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture.
Scientists are working in the lab
The BTS Skytrain is an elevated rapid transit system in Bangkok
Population pyramid 2016
Hill tribes girls in the Northeast of Thailand
Samanera of Theravada Buddhism, the most practised religion in Thailand.
Chulalongkorn University, established in 1917, is the oldest university in Thailand.
Thailand is a country where school uniform is mandatory.
Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, the oldest and largest hospital in Thailand.
Thai women wearing sabai, Jim Thompson House
People floating krathong rafts during the Loi Krathong festival in Chiang Mai, Thailand
Scene from the Ramakien depicted on a mural at Wat Phra Kaew.
Two sculptures guarding the eastern gate to the main chapel of Wat Arun.
Sculptures of Phra Aphai Mani and the Mermaid from the epic poem Phra Aphai Mani, a work of Sunthorn Phu.
Khon show is the most stylised form of Thai performance.
Muay Thai, Thailand's signature sport
Lumpinee Boxing Stadium

The country is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the extremity of Myanmar.

The former name Siam may have originated from Sanskrit श्याम (śyāma, 'dark') or Mon ရာမည (rhmañña, 'stranger').

Southeast Asia

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Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia
The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: 
Central Asia
Eastern Asia
Northern Asia
South-eastern Asia
Southern Asia
Western Asia
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries), with a high density of volcanoes situated in Indonesia and the Philippines.
The Mayon Volcano, Phillipines
Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province – the largest complex of Buddhist temples in Vietnam

They arrived in the northern Philippines between 7,000 BC to 2,200 BC and rapidly spread further into the Northern Mariana Islands and Borneo by 1500 BC; Island Melanesia by 1300 BC; and to the rest of Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and Palau by 1000 BC.

Sanskrit and Pali became the elite language of the region, which effectively made Southeast Asia part of the Indosphere.

The Rencong alphabet, a native writing system found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th line.

Malay language

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The Rencong alphabet, a native writing system found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th line.
Kedukan Bukit Inscription, using Pallava alphabet, is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language in South Sumatra, Indonesia.
A Malay traffic sign in Malaysia.
Malay road signs in Jakarta, Indonesia. The blue sign reads "Lajur Khusus Menurunkan Penumpang" which means "Lane for dropping passengers only" and the small no-parking sign on the left reads "Sampai Rambu Berikutnya" which means "until next sign" in Indonesian
Jakartan Creole Malay (Betawi language)

Malay (Bahasa Melayu, Jawi:, Rencong: ) is an Austronesian language officially spoken in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore and unofficially spoken in East Timor and parts of Thailand.

Through the penetration and proliferation of Sanskrit vocabulary and the influence of major Indian religions, the Proto-Malay evolved into a form known as the Old Malay language.

Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (circa 500 BCE) – modern-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan

Buddhism

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Indian religion or philosophical tradition based on a series of original teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha.

Indian religion or philosophical tradition based on a series of original teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha.

Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (circa 500 BCE) – modern-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan
The gilded "Emaciated Buddha statue" in an Ubosoth in Bangkok representing the stage of his asceticism
Enlightenment of Buddha, Kushan dynasty, late 2nd to early 3rd century CE, Gandhara.
The Buddha teaching the Four Noble Truths. Sanskrit manuscript. Nalanda, Bihar, India.
Traditional Tibetan Buddhist Thangka depicting the Wheel of Life with its six realms
Ramabhar Stupa in Kushinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India is regionally believed to be Buddha's cremation site.
An aniconic depiction of the Buddha's spiritual liberation (moksha) or awakening (bodhi), at Sanchi. The Buddha is not depicted, only symbolized by the Bodhi tree and the empty seat.
Dharma Wheel and triratna symbols from Sanchi Stupa number 2.
Buddhist monks and nuns praying in the Buddha Tooth Relic Temple of Singapore
A depiction of Siddhartha Gautama in a previous life prostrating before the past Buddha Dipankara. After making a resolve to be a Buddha, and receiving a prediction of future Buddhahood, he becomes a "bodhisattva".
Bodhisattva Maitreya, Gandhara (3rd century), Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Sermon in the Deer Park depicted at Wat Chedi Liam, near Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand.
Buddhist monks collect alms in Si Phan Don, Laos. Giving is a key virtue in Buddhism.
An ordination ceremony at Wat Yannawa in Bangkok. The Vinaya codes regulate the various sangha acts, including ordination.
Living at the root of a tree (trukkhamulik'anga) is one of the dhutaṅgas, a series of optional ascetic practices for Buddhist monastics.
Kōdō Sawaki practicing Zazen ("sitting dhyana")
Seated Buddha, Gal Viharaya, Polonnawura, Sri Lanka.
Kamakura Daibutsu, Kōtoku-in, Kamakura, Japan.
Statue of Buddha in Wat Phra Si Rattana Mahathat, Phitsanulok, Thailand
An 18th century Mongolian miniature which depicts the generation of the Vairocana Mandala
A section of the Northern wall mural at the Lukhang Temple depicting tummo, the three channels (nadis) and phowa
Monks debating at Sera Monastery, Tibet
Tibetan Buddhist prostration practice at Jokhang, Tibet.
Vegetarian meal at Buddhist temple. East Asian Buddhism tends to promote vegetarianism.
A depiction of the supposed First Buddhist council at Rajgir. Communal recitation was one of the original ways of transmitting and preserving Early Buddhist texts.
Gandhara birchbark scroll fragments (c. 1st century) from British Library Collection
The Tripiṭaka Koreana in South Korea, an edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon carved and preserved in over 81,000 wood printing blocks
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu reads Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock copy of the Tibetan Kanjur.
Mahākāśyapa meets an Ājīvika ascetic, one of the common Śramaṇa groups in ancient India
Ajanta Caves, Cave 10, a first period type chaitya worship hall with stupa but no idols.
Sanchi Stupa No. 3, near Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India.
Map of the Buddhist missions during the reign of Ashoka according to the Edicts of Ashoka.
Extent of Buddhism and trade routes in the 1st century CE.
Buddhist expansion throughout Asia
A Buddhist triad depicting, left to right, a Kushan, the future buddha Maitreya, Gautama Buddha, the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara, and a monk. Second–third century. Guimet Museum
Site of Nalanda University, a great center of Mahāyāna thought
Vajrayana adopted deities such as Bhairava, known as Yamantaka in Tibetan Buddhism.
Angkor Thom build by Khmer King Jayavarman VII (c. 1120–1218).
Distribution of major Buddhist traditions
Buddhists of various traditions, Yeunten Ling Tibetan Institute
Monastics and white clad laypersons celebrate Vesak, Vipassakna Dhaurak, Cambodia
Chinese Buddhist monks performing a formal ceremony in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.
Tibetan Buddhists practicing Chöd with various ritual implements, such as the Damaru drum, hand-bell, and Kangling (thighbone trumpet).
Ruins of a temple at the Erdene Zuu Monastery complex in Mongolia.
Buryat Buddhist monk in Siberia
1893 World Parliament of Religions in Chicago
Interior of the Thai Buddhist wat in Nukari, Nurmijärvi, Finland
Percentage of Buddhists by country, according to the Pew Research Center, as of 2010
A painting by G. B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing a scene of Borobudur, the largest Buddhist temple in the world.
Frontispiece of the Chinese Diamond Sūtra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world
The Dharmachakra, a sacred symbol which represents Buddhism and its traditions.
An image of a lantern used in the Vesak Festival, which celebrates the birth, enlightenment and Parinirvana of Gautama Buddha.

Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravāda (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahāyāna (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle").

Sri Lanka became a base for its later spread to Southeast Asia after the 5th century CE (Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Cambodia and coastal Vietnam).

A Balinese Hindu family after puja at Bratan temple in Bali, Indonesia

Hinduism

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Variously defined as an Indian religion, a set of religious beliefs or practices, a religious tradition, a way of life, or dharma—a religious and universal order by which followers abide.

Variously defined as an Indian religion, a set of religious beliefs or practices, a religious tradition, a way of life, or dharma—a religious and universal order by which followers abide.

A Balinese Hindu family after puja at Bratan temple in Bali, Indonesia
Om, a stylized letter of Devanagari script, used as a religious symbol in Hinduism
Swami Vivekananda was a key figure in introducing Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and the United States, raising interfaith awareness and making Hinduism a world religion.
Ganesha is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
The Hare Krishna group at the Esplanadi Park in Helsinki, Finland
The festival of lights, Diwali, is celebrated by Hindus all over the world.
Hindus in Ghana celebrating Ganesh Chaturti
Holi celebrated at the Sri Sri Radha Krishna Temple in Utah, United States.
Kedar Ghat, a bathing place for pilgrims on the Ganges at Varanasi
Priests performing Kalyanam (marriage) of the holy deities at Bhadrachalam Temple, in Telangana. It is one of the temples in India, where Kalyanam is done everyday throughout the year.
A statue of Shiva in yogic meditation.
Basic Hindu symbols: Shatkona, Padma, and Swastika.
Kauai Hindu monastery in Kauai Island in Hawaii is the only Hindu Monastery in the North American continent.
A sadhu in Madurai, India.
The Hindu Shore Temple at Mahabalipuram was built by Narasimhavarman II.
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The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu.

The revivalist movement was mainly started and encouraged by many organisations like RSS, BJP and other organisations of Sangh Parivar in India, while there are also many Hindu nationalist parties and organisations such as Shivsena Nepal and RPP in Nepal, HINDRAF in Malaysia, etc. In September 2021, the State of New Jersey aligned with the World Hindu Council to declare October as Hindu Heritage Month.

Javanese language

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Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, Indonesia.

Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, Indonesia.

The word Jawa (Java) written in Javanese script.
A Javanese noble lady (left) would address her servant with one vocabulary, and be answered with another. (Studio portrait of painter Raden Saleh's wife and a servant, colonial Batavia, 1860–1872.)
Susuhunan Pakubuwono X of Surakarta. Surakarta has been a center of Javanese culture, and its dialect is regarded as the most "refined".
A modern bilingual text in Portuguese and Javanese in Yogyakarta.
Madurese in Javanese script.
Distribution map of languages spoken in Java, Madura, and Bali.

There are speakers of Javanese in Malaysia (concentrated in the West Coast part of the states of Selangor and Johor) and Singapore.

Almost half of the entire vocabularies found in Old Javanese literature are Sanskrit loanwords, although Old Javanese also borrowed terms from other languages in the Maritime Southeast Asia.

Tamil language

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Classical Dravidian language natively spoken by the Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent.

Classical Dravidian language natively spoken by the Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent.

Findings from Adichanallur in the Government Museum, Chennai
Keezhadi excavation site
Explanation for Mangulam Tamil Brahmi inscription in Mangulam, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, dated to Tamil Sangam period (c. 400 BC to c. 200 AD)
Tamil Brahmi script in the reverse side of the bilingual silver coin of king Vashishtiputra Sātakarni (c. AD 160) of Deccan. Rev: Ujjain/Sātavāhana symbol, crescented six-arch chaitya hill and river with Tamil Brahmi script  Obv: Bust of king; Prakrit legend in the Brahmi script
Mangulam Tamil Brahmi inscription in Mangulam, Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, dated to Tamil Sangam period (c. 400 BC to c. 200 AD)
Middle Tamil inscriptions in Vatteluttu script in stone during Chola period c.1000 AD at Brahadeeswara temple in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu
An 18th-century Nayaka era sculpture depicting the wedding of Goddess Meenakshi
Jambai Tamil Brahmi inscription near Tirukkoyilur in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu dated to the early Tamil Sangam age (c. 400 BC)
Historical evolution of Tamil writing from the earlier Tamil Brahmi near the top to the current Tamil script at bottom
Thirukkural palm leaf manuscript

This led to the replacement of a significant number of Sanskrit loanwords by Tamil equivalents, though many others remain.

There are currently sizeable Tamil-speaking populations descended from colonial-era migrants in Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Mauritius, South Africa, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, and Vietnam.

Malay children playing Tarik Upih Pinang, a traditional game that involves dragging a palm frond

Malaysian Malay

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Standardized form of Malay language used in Malaysia (as opposed to the variety used in Indonesia, which is referred to as the "Indonesian" language).

Standardized form of Malay language used in Malaysia (as opposed to the variety used in Indonesia, which is referred to as the "Indonesian" language).

Malay children playing Tarik Upih Pinang, a traditional game that involves dragging a palm frond
The remains of an ancient folk temple in Bujang Valley. It was believed that the area was home to an early civilisation dating from 553 BC.
Portuguese illustration of Malays, 1540.
The bronze mural of the legendary Malay warrior, Hang Tuah with his renowned quote Ta' Melayu Hilang Di-Dunia (Malay for "Never shall the Malays vanish from the face of the earth") written on the top. The quote is a famous rallying cry for Malay nationalism.
The Malayan Declaration of Independence in Jawi alphabet.
Comparison of the Malay language written in Rumi and Jawi with other languages
Traffic signs in Malaysian: Warning sign "Level crossing" and regulatory sign "Stop".

Since then, to recognize that Malaysia is composed of many ethnic groups (and not only the ethnic Malays), the term bahasa Malaysia has once again become the government's preferred designation for the bahasa kebangsaan (national language) and the bahasa perpaduan/penyatu (unifying language).

The Malaysian language has most of its borrowings absorbed from Sanskrit, Tamil, Hindustani, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, Sinitic languages, Arabic and more recently, English (in particular many scientific and technological terms).